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Directors Mark Amin

description An escaped slave travels north and has chance encounters with Frederick Douglass and John Brown. Based on the life story of Shields Green

year 2020


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Emperor theme. Emperor Background information Origin Notodden, Norway Genres Black metal, symphonic black metal, progressive metal [1] Years active 1991–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present Labels Deathlike Silence, Century Media, Candlelight, Nuclear Blast Website www. emperorhorde Members Ihsahn Samoth Trym Past members Mortiis Alver Tchort Faust Emperor is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1991, regarded as highly influential by critics and emerging black metal bands. [2] [3] [4] The group split up in 2001, but reunited from 2005 to 2007 for a few festival dates and brief US tours, and again reunited in 2013 to 2014. Emperor reformed for the third time in 2016. The group was founded by Ihsahn (guitar/vocal) and Samoth (then, drums). Biography [ edit] Early career and In the Nightside Eclipse (1991–1995) [ edit] In their youth, Ihsahn and Samoth met at a rock music seminar. [5] The two young men began playing together under various names; first Dark Device, then Xerasia, then Embryonic. The group soon evolved into the now well-known band Thou Shalt Suffer. Soon, however, Samoth began to write music outside of Thou Shalt Suffer, and together with Ihsahn and a new bass player called Mortiis (later of his own eponymous band Mortiis), Emperor was formed. After a short while together, the band released a demo entitled Wrath of the Tyrant. It quickly gained popularity in the underground and attracted the attention of the then-start-up label Candlelight. Soon afterwards, a record contract was signed, Samoth moved to rhythm guitar, Ihsahn continued the vocal duties and lead guitars, and Faust was recruited as a drummer. Emperor released their debut EP, Emperor, under Candlelight Records. The band then was signed to the infamous first black metal label, Deathlike Silence Productions, and planned to release their next album soon, though the band never managed to release any material while signed to DSP. In the summer of 1992, a series of events were set in motion by the black metal inner circle. Samoth, along with various other black metallers, set out to burn down old churches in Norway. Also in 1992, Faust lived in Lillehammer, and in the newly constructed Olympic park a man named Magne Andreassen approached him and suggested that they take a walk in the nearby forest. Faust agreed, and, once in the forest, Faust claimed the man began to make strong sexual advances towards him. Faust then stabbed the man to death, kicking him in the head afterward to ensure that he was dead. [6] He was not convicted until two years later. The day after Faust committed the murder, he went with Euronymous of Mayhem and Varg Vikernes of Burzum to burn the Holmenkollen Chapel in Oslo. [7] In the summer of 1993, the band began working on their first full-length album. Emperor ceased wearing corpse paint; they stated that it was becoming a trend and losing its original significance and symbolism. In autumn of that year, the police began to investigate the murder of Euronymous of Mayhem, naming Varg Vikernes as a suspect; this investigation eventually led to the incarceration of Samoth for arson, and of Faust for the murder of Magne Andreassen. In 1994, Samoth was sentenced to 16 months in prison for burning the Skjold Church in Vindafjord, together with Varg Vikernes. [8] [9] The arson was committed during a pause in the recording of the Burzum EP Aske (‘Ashes’). In 1994, In the Nightside Eclipse was released, and earned Emperor widespread acclaim and a large fanbase. Final releases (1996–2001) [ edit] After Samoth's parole, the band was joined by Trym and Alver on drums and bass respectively, and at the end of 1996, Emperor entered the studio to record Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk. Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk won the 'album of the year' poll in many metal magazines around the world, including UK Terrorizer and US Metal Maniacs. [ citation needed] Bassist Alver soon left. Aside from their European shows, the band played in Mexico City on 24 July 1999. [ citation needed] Now continuing their career as a trio, with Ihsahn handling keyboards, vocals, guitars and bass, the band recorded their third album IX Equilibrium and toured Europe and North America. It was around 2000 when Samoth and Trym started to gravitate more towards death metal, while Ihsahn directed his musical exploration towards his side project, Peccatum. Thus, in 2001, Emperor decided to disband after releasing one final album, Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise, composed entirely by Ihsahn. Ihsahn later recalled that "When we announced the split up in 2001, we didn't think we would do anything more with Emperor ever decision was also based on the feeling that Emperor had a lot of integrity, and that if we were going to end it, we should end it while we still created great music. For us, the decision was made in the black metal spirit. Since Samoth and I pulled in different directions, we didn't see any point in continuing. The core of the band wasn't intact anymore". [10] Samoth echoed Ihsahn's position: "At that point, we both had other priorities that we wanted to pursue and we both felt that splitting up Emperor was the best thing to do. We really wanted to focus on other things, and felt it was the only right thing to do". [10] Hiatus and occasional live performances [ edit] Following the breakup, Samoth and Trym continued playing in the black/death metal outfit Zyklon, while Ihsahn concentrated on his family project Peccatum. Later Ihsahn announced a solo project, much in the vein of Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise and Peccatum, featuring drummer Asgeir Mickelson of Borknagar and Vintersorg. It has generated positive feedback in the black metal community. The band played a surprise three-song show in Oslo on 30 September 2005, at which they announced a series of full concerts to take place in California, New York City, and Europe in 2006. [ citation needed] As of February 2006, they were also scheduled to play at the Inferno festival in April and Germany's Wacken Open Air in August. Samoth was unable to take part in the US tour dates, as his conviction for the arson he committed in 1992 lengthened the process for his visa application, so Emperor performed without him. On 7 October 2006, Emperor performed at the under-18 Motstøy-festival in their home town of Notodden. The band had wanted to do an under-18 gig and a gig at their home town, so the festival fit perfectly. It was held at a small venue called StuA, and with only 450 tickets available, the concert quickly sold out. [ citation needed] On 28 October 2006, Emperor returned to the UK to play a gig at London's Astoria venue, where the band was warmly greeted by fans. In 2007, Emperor played a series of one-off shows in the United States and two festival gigs in France and Finland. [ citation needed] A Tablature Book based on their Scattered Ashes: A Decade of Emperial Wrath compilation album, containing thirteen Emperor tracks from their back catalogue, transcribed by Ihsahn with a foreword also by him, was released 31 October 2007 via Candlelight Records. Emperor's albums were also re-issued in a special box version with a bonus poster on 21 August 2007. Samoth announced on 23 October 2007 that Emperor had begun preparing a second official DVD release. [11] On 8 December 2008 it was revealed that this release will be called Live Inferno and come in the form of a double-disc live album and a live DVD, taken from their appearances at Inferno and Wacken metal festivals during their brief reunion. [12] It was released on 16 April 2009 in Europe and 21 April in North America. On 2 August 2013, it was announced that Emperor would be reuniting to headline the 25th anniversary Wacken Festival in 2014. [13] In the following months, they were announced as headliners for the 2014 editions of the Bloodstock Open Air and Hellfest festivals. In April 2014, they announced shows in Tokyo and Osaka for July with Trym playing drums due to Faust's visa issues. On 12 August 2016, it was announced that Emperor would reunite again in 2017 for a special set of performances to celebrate their 20th anniversary second studio album Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk. [14] on 27 December 2018, the band announced its presentation at the Mexico Metal Fest in Monterrey, Mexico in 2019. Emperor – De regreso a México Despite playing a handful of reunion shows, Ihsahn has stated that Emperor has no plans to record a new album. He was quoted as saying: "It's kind of a lose-lose thing. The whole point of black metal, people want something that is real and has integrity of what it is. At this point, none of us can see any reason to do that beyond what we already do. " [15] Controversy [ edit] Ihsahn once promoted arson in an interview: "Skjold Church was a large wooden church about 100 years old. The church contained an altar board and preaching chair from the 16th century. All this was said to be of historical, Christian value. So it was to be reduced to a pile of ashes. The material damages are set to be of 13 million Norwegian Kroners. The church was still being used by a large flock of blind followers. It became a victim for true Norwegian spirit on the 13th of September Anno 1992 during a stormy night. Witnessed by the moon, this symbolic act of anti-Christian war enlightened the night with pagan flames. Heathen barbarism is on the rise. We will bring back the forgotten past of strength, pride, and victory. " [16] However, Ihsahn, in a post-90s interview, attributed his ties to Satanism as being part of his adolescence. In 2014 Emperor attracted further controversy when the original drummer, Faust, joined them for live performances. Faust is a convicted murderer and caused some upset by being part of the shows. [17] Band members [ edit] Current lineup [ edit] Ihsahn – vocals, guitars, keyboards (1991–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present) Samoth – guitars (1992–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present), drums (1991–1992) Trym Torson – drums (1996–2001, 2005–2007, 2016–present) Former members [ edit] Håvard "Mortiis" Ellefsen – bass (1991–1992) Bård "Faust" Eithun – drums (1992–1994, 2013–2014) Terje "Tchort" Schei – bass (1993–1994) Jonas "Alver" Alver – bass (1995–1998) Live members [ edit] Vidar "Ildjarn" Vaaer – bass (1993) Steinar "Sverd" Johnsen – keyboards (1994–1995) Joachim "Charmand Grimloch" Rygg – keyboards (1996–1999) Jan Erik "Tyr" Torgersen – bass (1998–2001) Einar Solberg – keyboards (2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–2017) Tony "Secthdamon" Ingebrigtsen – bass (2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–Present) Jørgen Munkeby - keyboards (2018, 2019) Gerlioz - keyboards (2018) Ole Vistnes - bass (2019) Timeline [ edit] Discography [ edit] Studio albums In the Nightside Eclipse (1994) Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk (1997) IX Equilibrium (1999) Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise (2001) References [ edit] ^ "Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise - Emperor - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 November 2019. ^ Steve Huey. "In the Nightside Eclipse – Emperor | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Peter Bickel. "Emperor » Nordische Musik".. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Extreme Metal II – Joel McIver – Google Boeken.. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Brad Angle (14 August 2009). "Emperor: Symphony of Destruction".. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2013. ^ "Faust Interview".. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground, First Edition, Venice, CA: Feral House 1998, p. 94f. ^ Hartmann, Graham. "Top 10 Worst Crimes Committed by Black Metal Musicians".. Retrieved 8 January 2015. ^ "Satan's Cheerleaders". Spin Magazine. February 1996. p. 66. ^ a b Kvam, Martin (December 2005). "MMV Equilibrium". Terrorizer. 138: 8–12. ^ "ZYKLON 'Taking A Break', EMPEROR DVD On The Way".. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. ^ "News > EMPEROR's Live Inferno Confirmed For Worldwide Release".. Retrieved 29 October 2011. ^ "Emperor To Reunite For Wacken Open Air – in Metal News".. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ DiVita, Joe (13 August 2016). "Emperor to Reunite in 2017 for 20th Anniversary of 'Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk ' ". Loudwire. Retrieved 14 August 2016. ^ "IHSAHN Rules Out New EMPEROR Album: 'What Could We Possibly Do? It's Kind Of A Lose-Lose Thing ' ".. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019. ^ "Ihshan interview in EsoTerra #6 1995".. Retrieved 13 September 2015. ^ "Why Is The Convicted Murderer Of A Gay Man Being Celebrated At A Major Metal Festival? ".. External links [ edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperor. Official website.

Emperors new groove. Mortiis finest music creation. To save this word, you'll need to log in. em·​per·​or | ˈem-pər-ər, -prər 1: the sovereign or supreme male monarch of an empire Other Words from emperor emperorship ˈem-​pər-​ər-​ˌship, -​prər-​ noun Did You Know? The words emperor, caesar, czar, and Kaiser all go back to one source: the title of the first Roman emperor, Imperator Caesar Augustus. Augustus was the adopted son of the Roman general and ruler Julius Caesar and he took the name Caesar as part of his official name. Later Roman emperors did the same, and thus caesar came to mean “an emperor of Rome. ” The word caesar was borrowed into German and other Germanic languages as Kaiser, which is how we get the word kaiser for “a ruler in Germany. ” Through the Russian word tsar, which also came from kaiser, we got our word czar, meaning “a ruler in Russia. ” The word emperor can be traced through French to Latin imperator. Imperator was a title given to great Roman generals and meant “commander, ” from the verb imperare “to command. ” Examples of emperor in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web But Ghosn is used to living like an emperor who relished nothing more circling the globe and posing with heads of state. — Fortune, "Carlos Ghosn Is Now a Fugitive In Exile. Here Are His Legal Options, According to Experts, " 10 Jan. 2020 The Second Empire lasted until 1870, when the emperor, conscious of his declining popularity, declared war on Prussia – and lost. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of the world's largest freshwater fish just went extinct. Grace Hauck, USA TODAY, "Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of world's largest fish just went extinct, " 10 Jan. 2020 After years of battle, the French took over Mexico City and installed an emperor — Maximilian I of the Austrian House of Hapsburg — in 1864 for what would be a very short empire indeed. Jay R. Brooks, The Mercury News, "Beer trend alert: The resurgence of Mexican lager, " 6 Sep. 2019 As art historian Michael Rainer tells Viennese daily, a 17th-century biography of Dürer details a wall painting ordered by the emperor, but no other records of the commission survive. Brigit Katz, Smithsonian Magazine, "Artwork Discovered in Vienna Cathedral’s Gift Shop May Be the Work of German Renaissance Master Albrecht Dürer, " 13 Jan. 2020 Bonaparte went from being France’s first elected president to its last emperor. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 But Shinto’s ties to the imperial family, and some religious rituals performed by the emperor, have generated controversy. Washington Post, "Shinto festival carries on centuries-old tradition in Japan, " 5 Dec. 2019 The 1980s saw the inscrutable foreigner with his secret allegiance to the emperor evolve into the company man with an obsessive allegiance to work. Rumaan Alam, The New Republic, "The Factory Is a Chilling Account of the Contemporary Workplace, " 2 Dec. 2019 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'emperor. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of emperor 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 History and Etymology for emperor Middle English emperour, borrowed from Anglo-French empereor, amperour, going back to Latin imperātōr-, imperātor "person giving orders, commanding officer, title of honor bestowed on a victorious general by his troops, title conferred by the Roman senate on Julius Caesar and Augustus and adopted by later successors, " from imperāre "to demand the production of, levy, give orders, exercise authority, hold political power" (from im- in- entry 2 + parāre "to supply, provide, make ready") + -tōr-, -tor, agent suffix — more at pare Note: See note at pare. Learn More about emperor Cite this Entry “Emperor. ” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster,. Accessed 13 Feb. 2020. More Definitions for emperor em·​per·​or | ˈem-pər-ər Kids Definition of emperor: a man who rules an empire Comments on emperor What made you want to look up emperor? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).

"No world shall be beyond my rule. No enemy shall be beyond my wrath. " The ruler of an empire, note  usually but not always The Empire. Historically, Emperors outranked Kings, so when you need an authority figure to convey the highest possible power and rank, you can't get any higher than making them The Emperor (unless you go to The Pope, or into the otherworldly realms of Galactic Conquerors, Demon Lords and Archdevils, Celestial Paragons and Archangels, and at the most accepted highest tier, God-Emperor). The previous steps are God Save Us from the Queen!, The Woman Wearing the Queenly Mask, The High Queen, She Is the King, The Good King and President Evil. If a ruler is known as The Emperor, it is almost a sure sign that he is an Evil Overlord and the Big Bad of the story, or at least a major villain, especially if you are in a Fantasy setting. Kings, Princes, and Presidents are as likely to be good ( The Good King, The Wise Prince, President Superhero) as they are to be bad ( The Caligula, The Evil Prince, President Evil) but somehow The Emperor is almost always a villain of some sort. This is probably for the same reasons as Good Republic, Evil Empire. Though, the Emperor is often distinct from the Evil Overlord in that he is much more likely to be the ruler of the world, or at least the ruler of the largest and most influential country in it, instead of simply being a Sauron/Kim Jong-Il dictator cackling it up over in Latveria/ Mordorland. They will frequently invoke Authority Equals Asskicking, which can often make them the most dangerous man on the planet. At the same time, Emperors have a tendency to be Disc One Final Bosses. It is very common for a villainous version to be hyped up as the main villain initially, before being superseded by a Greater-Scope Villain (perhaps a Sealed Evil in a Can that they released), The Man Behind the Man, or The Dragon after their defeat by the heroes and/or after betrayal from within their organization. When used like this, it is often for escalation purposes, as the initial Emperor is usually fairly normal within the setting besides his political power and ( sometimes) exceptional skills, wheras their successor often has far more intimidating powers at their command. This villainous depiction is ubiquitous in Western media. Only in historic plotlines involving the leaders of the real-life Roman Empire will they get any sympathetic depiction at all, and even then they are usually portrayed as incompetent or otherwise unflatteringly. In contrast, in China and Japan, Emperors actually served as legitimate rulers for most of recorded history, and thus Eastern media (particularly Chinese wuxia films, but also occasionally anime) do have the occasional non-evil Emperor. However, if the Emperor is legitimate and non-malevolent, his role in the plot is usually purely as a background character, often serving as an impotent foil to an Evil Chancellor who holds the true reins of power; plot-significant Emperors usually serve in the role of Big Bad. The Emperor might be: The Evil Overlord, a very standard Big Bad (often complete with Spikes of Villainy and Shoulders of Doom), is essentially a cliché bully who, despite having no real diplomatic or political skills, has attained his position through strength or special combat skills; if this is seen as too oafish, a very powerful Evil Sorcerer or Emperor Scientist, who still lacks subtlety, will suffice. Expect him to abuse his followers, intimidate his subordinates, wear battle-armor all the time, and be built like a tank. The Legions of Hell and Always Chaotic Evil races are this guy's mooks. A General Ripper, if significantly promoted, is a more intelligent derivative of this type. The Shadow Emperor is an extremely powerful form of The Emperor, who rules from behind-the-scenes with much Machiavellian scheming, delegating much of his powers, and almost always has a hidden agenda. Though they are usually not as physical as Blood Knights like the Evil Overlord, they will probably have hidden magic or Psychic Powers. Emperor Palpatine (who was originally a President Charisma) and Charles zi Britannia are prime examples. Of all these types, the Shadow Emperor will be the most likely to try and obtain immortality. He's likely to be The Ghost for at least the first part of the story, usually operating through Mooks or The Dragon. The President Charisma, typically a leader of Eagle Land, is a Villain with Good Publicity, who always puts on a good face for the public, but is a conniving Manipulative Bastard behind the scenes. A more realistic and politically oriented emperor, he is often a Take That! at the nation's current administration (or somebody else's). An Engineered Public Confession is one of his more common foes. Examples include virtually all fictional references to Richard Nixon. The Norsefire leader attempted to be this, and most other Hitler expies will usually come off as one (in his own country, anyways). The Good King. Usually located in East-Asia ( or an equivalent), the wise king is a benevolent (if usually distant from the heroes and their struggle) leader, who sides with the heroes when he finally shows up, and acts more as a promoted spiritual guide or priest than pure authority. They are the Big Good and/or Greater-Scope Paragon of the story. The few western examples will just be an expansion of the wise Royal Blood "True King". The Emperors of Mulan and The Last Samurai are prime examples. A President Charisma may be confused for this before The Reveal. A common derivative is a once-great benevolent Emperor who has grown senile and surrounded by corruption. A Knight Templar Emperor tries to be this, but usually ends up becoming one of the above. Messiah-Emperors usually qualify as one of these, though like all benevolent leaders ( some cases in particular) may use heavy amounts of Necessarily Evil. Roughly half of the Roman Emperors depicted in fiction will be of this sort. The other half will be Caligulae to a man. Just the First Citizen: Any of the above, but with a much more modest title. This trope isn't necessarily related to God-Emperor, but it may be. Not to Be Confused with the Black Metal band Emperor. Of course, just because the trope is titled "The Emperor " doesn't preclude the existence of actual Empresses, as some of the examples in both fiction and Real Life illustrate. An Empress is likely to be depicted more sympathetically than an Emperor, often incorporating elements of The Woman Wearing the Queenly Mask (if mature) or the less-frivolous Princess Tropes (if youthful). Less sympathetic female rulers are more often queens. Examples: open/close all folders Anime & Manga Bleach Yhwach, the King of the Quincies and the Emperor of the Vandenreich, is the final arc's Big Bad. He's a hands-on military leader, not the "isolated on the golden throne" type, who is as willing to kill his own troops as his enemies. When he fights, he becomes an Ax-Crazy Blood Knight. There's an indication that his soul thrives on war to keep functioning. Without the ability to absorb the souls of those he kills, he would be nothing more than a vegetable who can neither move nor has functioning senses. As a result, he incites war and violence wherever he can. Souther from Fist of the North Star follows the Evil Overlord template to a tee. He calls himself the "Saint Emperor" and has his minions kidnap children to use as slave labor in the construction of a giant pyramid dedicated to his dead master, and he is one of the few villains in the series to hand Kenshiro an outright defeat. The Big Bad Emperor Charles zi Britannia in Code Geass presides over a World Half Empty, and does everything in his power to keep it that way. This appearance is actually a front for his Assimilation Plot. And to top it off, his seiyuu was given the Fan Nickname of "Emperor Wakamoto". Empresses Jiang Lihua and Nunnally vi Britannia are the good version. The Big Bad of The Vision of Escaflowne is the Zaibach Empire's Emperor Dornkirk, who is actually Sir Isaac Newton, and is currently a 200-year-old man inside a pickle jar with a telescope attached. Samurai 7 has the unnamed Emperor who kidnaps women from peasant villages and implants clones of himself within them to create a perfect line of successors. He apparently had a lot of such clones: Ukyo, the series' true Big Bad, is revealed to be his 49th clone. He promptly kills the old Emperor and takes his throne for the purpose of world domination. In Digimon, Ken's villain persona "the Digimon Emperor" fits this trope as well as his name would suggest. A whip-wielding Evil Overlord with a Floating Base of Doom and a costume which includes gold shoulder pads and a cape, his goal is to enslave all Digimon and take over their world. All at the tender age of eleven, too. Dragon Ball Z: Frieza, having spent his entire life at the top of a galaxy-spanning empire, likes to refer to himself as "emperor of the universe" while posturing. He's very much the Evil Overlord type, with his diplomatic skills amounting to "do what I say and maybe I won't kill you and destroy your entire planet. " Frieza's briefly-seen father, by contrast, is exclusively referred to as King Cold. Tenchi Muyo! : Azusa Masaki Jurai, the Juraian Emperor, is an interesting case. In the anime he is somewhat of a jerk, but actually leans to the Benevolent Emperor category, and is a kind of a ditz, easily controlled by his mother-in-law, for whom he still keeps an immense crush, despite being Happily Married (twice). You see, Juraian royalty are indeed one Big, Screwed-Up Family. His mother-in-law can control him more than because he has a crush on her. She's one of the most dangerous people in the universe to anyone: to her enemies because she is an expert tactician and leader; to her allies because she loves to use them for humor, often causing sheer chaos. Shi Ryuuki from Saiunkoku Monogatari is a rare benevolent emperor and a main character of his show. Emperor Hotohori or Saihitei from Fushigi Yuugi is another example of a Benevolent Emperor who genuinely cares and works for the improvement of his nation. When he first visited Tamahome's house, he was surprised by the poverty he found there and is seen making a mental resolution to do something about the problem, although Tamahome was his rival in love. He also went to war for his country and died fighting. He has a Foil in the form of the Kutou Emperor. Where Hotohori is young, very handsome, chaste, and does his best to rule with fairness and kindness, the Kutou Emperor is (relatively) old (maybe in his late 40s or early 50s), Hollywood Homely, lecherous, and rules with an iron fist. Later, we meet Hotohori's son and sucessor, little Boushin alias Emperor Reiteizei. With the help of his kind mother, Empress Dowager Houki, he's shaping into a Reasonable Authority Figure, and he tells Mayo to shut up and stop lying about Miaka. Grenadier gives us a benevolent Empress, though she is imprisoned and impersonated by her identical (villainous) bodyguard for the most of the story, so her other identical bodyguard has to free her. Crest of the Stars has the Humankind Empire Abh as it's series focus and at the top is none other than Empress Ramaj. A relatively benevolent figure considering she responded to provocation by plunging half of humanity into war with the other half. The Empire in Legend of Galactic Heroes is, naturally, ruled by The Emperor, an inherited title of the ruling Goldenbaum family, whose dynasty has continued unbroken since the Empire's foundation. The emperor at the beginning of the series is Friedrich IV, an old peaceful man who never aspired to the throne due to being far down on the list of claimants in his youth. He's uninterested in ruling or the ongoing war with The Federation and content with living in peace and enjoying the finer things in life, like his private rose garden, and lets his chief of staff and admirals run things. He's consequently quite impotent as an actual ruler, but reasonable and harmless and quite fond of main character Reinhart von Lohengramm. His natural death of old age one third through the series kicks off an imperial civil war between the old noble houses who seek to keep the status quo, and a reformist faction of the military and lesser houses led by Reinhard. Reinhard wins a crushing victory and takes effective control of the empire, eventually disposing of the Goldenbaum dynasty nonviolently and establishing the Lohengramm dynasty in its stead. Reinhard becomes a reformer and rules as an enlightened and quite benevolent emperor, though he thinks nothing of using his imperial authority to force reforms through. Emperor Ganishka of Berserk is of the Evil Sorcerer / Evil Overlord variety. His typical M. O. is of the Shadow Emperor variety, although he can back it up with a great deal of magical mojo when required. And here's a fascinating absence. Japan, home of anime, is ruled by an emperor. Yet in any anime set in the "real" Japan, modern, historical, or future, the actual emperor of Japan never makes an appearance. Ever. Go on, try to think of any remotely successful anime where a real Emperor of Japan has so much as a cameo. It should probably be pointed out, though, that for much of its history, the Emperor of Japan had very little concrete power. For many centuries, Japan was ruled by the Shoguns, and nowadays the country is ruled by the democratically elected government led by the Prime Minister. The most well known period when the emperor directly ruled the country is known as Imperial Japan (from the Meiji Restoration to WWII). There's also the Chrysanthemum taboo where you're not supposed to make fun of him and his family. One Piece has the Four Emperors (Yonko), the four most powerful pirates in the world, and the rulers of the New World. Currently among them is: Shanks, generally the nicest one and Luffy's childhood idol. Big Mom, a woman who doesn't give a damn about anything except her candy. Blackbeard, major contender for overall series Big Bad Kaido, who is the closest to the actual trope in terms of being an Evil Overlord, despite not having made an official appearance yet. Former includes Whitebeard, the World's Strongest Man, who died at the Paramount War. In Transformers, the Decepticon leader commonly carries the title of Emperor of Destruction. This has recently started to come up in the American media. In Fairy Tail, Emperor Spriggan aka Black Mage Zeref is the ruler of the Albareth Empire. Said empire was formed when Spriggan single-handedly united all 700+ Light and Dark guilds on the western continent and formed a magocracy that overthrew that continent's previous governments and Magic Council. Ishgar is quite wary of the man who could accomplish that. Yajeel, one of Spriggan's subordinates, claims that the Emperor is actually a Reasonable Authority Figure. He's often absent from court for years, but he has also helped maintain peace by keeping the more Hot-Blooded people like the Spriggan Twelve in check. Card Games In the Tarot the Major Arcana usually include the Empress (III) and the Emperor (IV). While encarnating different and opposite ideas (the Empress fecundity and feminity and the Emperor power and masculinity), they share to be represented seated in thrones holding symbols of power. Comic Books Ming the Merciless of Flash Gordon, Emperor of Planet Mongo. Decadently evil, magical powers (in some adaptations), the works. Legacy is a comic that takes place a hundred and thirty years after the movies. The Sith are all over the place, the Empire is back in power, there is an Emperor - but the Sith and the Empire aren't on the same side. Emperor Fel (confirmed as the descendant of Soontir Fel and the sister of Wedge Antilles, possibly also Leia and Han) isn't quite evil, though in that setting there's not a whole lot of difference. Big Bad Darth Krayt also uses the title Emperor (of the Sith and Sith-aligned Imperials). So the series has two emperors, one unambigiously evil, and the other ruthless but well-meaning. In fact, Roan Fel's empire not only lets women and aliens serve as stormtroopers, but also has more reasonable economic solutions and foreign policy. The remnants of Fel's empire even join the Jedi to fight Krayt's resurgent Sith. Tsar Vladimir the Conqueror in Nikolai Dante is somewhere between the evil overlord and shadow emperor. Fables seems to have been written by someone taking notes from this page. The Emperor: Spikes of evil and shoulders of doom, check. Nigh Invulnerable in battle, check. Built like a tank, check. (He's maybe 30-50 feet tall. ) Abuses and executes subjects, check. Secretly controlled by an unassuming ordinary man hiding in the shadows, check. One story in The Sandman involves the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar spending a day disguised as a beggar. He is rather personable and sympathetic, but may not quite qualify as benevolent: he plots to undermine the Roman Empire and bring it to an early end, with the implication that he sees this as revenge against his Creepy Uncle Julius. Issue 12 of the Invader Zim (Oni) comics sees Zim and Dib accidentally sent into a Bad Future where Earth has been successfully conquered by Zim's future self, who now styles himself as "Emperor Zim" and rules with an iron fist (and a goatee). Wonder Woman (1987): The Sangtee Emperor is the Emperor of an Empire that spans at least two star systems. Her Empire has a history of cruel and deadly misogyny and chattel slavery but under the current Emperor they're moving away from these practices. Fan Works Emperor Vakudos from Hottie 3: The Best Fan Fic in the World, later his daughter "Princess Lotora" becomes empress. In the Spin-Off, Hottie x Supetastic 6: March Madness, Princess Jody declares herself Crowned Princess and Empress after converting the Anti-Monitor's body (from Green Lantern: The Animated Series) into her new throne. My Hostage Not Yours: After Zim conquers the Earth, he declares himself Emperor. Despite that, he's still subservient to the Tallest, the true rulers of the Irken Empire. The Big Bad of Legends of Equestria is a being known only as The Emperor, leader of a race of highly advanced reptilian beings and ruler of a world-wide empire of which Equestria is merely "a speck". MLP Next Generation: Know Fear! : The Big Bad is Stratus, ruler of the Griffon Empire, who starts a war with Equestria for no reason other than Fantastic Racism and a desire to Take Over the World. Harry Potter in King Of Kings Ruling Over Rulers is crowned as the Roman and Russian Emperor in the wizarding world. In the Code Geass Alternate Universe Fic Mosaic, Suzaku is the emperor of Japan. A subplot of the fic is him taking on a larger role in governing his country. An Empire of Ice and Fire has a heroic example, as Jon and Daenerys eventually declare themselves the Emperor and Empress of the Targaryen Empire, which lays claim to all of Westeros and New Valyria (the renamed Slaver's Bay). For a villainous example, Joffrey — who is even more insane than in canon — rules over Westeros with an iron fist, eventually declaring himself a God-Emperor. Films — Animation The Chinese Emperor in Mulan is depicted as noble and wise, even grandfatherly. Lord Shen from Kung Fu Panda 2, who is the tyrannical peacock ruler of China who actually wants to threaten his subjects with a barrage of cannons and destroy kung fu. Emperor Kuzco, the antihero of The Emperor's New Groove, is a rare example of an Emperor who is neither old, evil, powerful, or particularly impressive at all. At the end, after he's learned his lesson, he starts edging into Benevolent Emperor territory. Films — Live-Action Emperor Palpatine of Star Wars is probably the archetypical example, being an Evil Overlord, the series' main Big Bad, and an incredibly powerful Sith Lord famous for blasting people with lightning. The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor features the Emperor of China (who knows Kung Fu and has superpowers) as the main villain. In Hero, the Emperor of China fills an ambivalently antagonistic role. The heroes of the story want to kill him due to the losses they suffered in his war to unify the five kingdoms into a single country (they were from the four losing kingdoms), and because they consider him as a tyrant. Ultimately the main character decides to spare the Emperor's life, since unifying the kingdoms is the only way to stop them from constantly fighting each other and thus bring peace. Regardless, midway through the film a failed assassination fight scene shows the Emperor is perfectly capable of matching a master swordsman blow-for-blow. Gladiator shows Marcus Aurelius as a Benevolent Emperor, and his son and successor Commodus, not so benevolent. The Emperor of the Galaxy from Starcrash. An interesting subversion is that the Emperor is one of the Good Guys. Emperor Hirohito is the namesake of Emperor. As portrayed near the end, he's actually really awesome! Empress Sabina in Dungeons & Dragons is an unique example that she is both female and benevolent while at the same time in charge of an corrupt and decadent regime due to the mage court. She does want to extend equal rights to her non-mage subjects, but is opposed by The Archmage Profion. Literature Anaander Mianaai from Ancillary Justice. She's not evil, exactly, but she does oversee the aggressive militaristic expansion of her multi-system empire to create a buffer zone for the Dyson's Sphere at its center, and she has no problem with turning people into meat puppets for her ships' AIs. Oh, and she oversees everything personally by using thousands of linked identical clone bodies and has been alive for a few thousands years. Emperor Jagang is a communist Evil Overlord and the Big Bad of the Sword of Truth series, especially the later books in the series. Protagonist Richard Rahl also rules an Empire, although he doesn't use the title himself. In The Chronicles of Narnia, Aslan's father was known as the Emperor-Across-the-Sea. Also, when the Pevensie children are made rulers of Narnia, one of Peter's titles as High King is Emperor of the Lone Islands. In El Conquistador there are several ones, in three continents. The Neverending Story (and the films based on the same) featured the benevolent Childlike Empress. Leto Atriedes II, the God-Emperor of Dune. And before him, his father Paul who usurped the position from Shaddam Corrino IV. Leto especially appears to his subjects to be the Evil Overlord, but thanks to the omniscient narrator viewpoint, readers can see his ultimate goal is actually quite benevolent. All Padishah-Emperors and Paul and Leto II can be traced back to the ruling dynasty of the Old Empire. The Corrino line was founded by Faykan Butler (who took the name Faykan Corrino at crowning) and his wife, who is descended from the Old Emperors. Paul Atreides also has Corrino lineage through his grandmother Helena. Emperor Gregor Vorbarra of the Vorkosigan Saga matures over the series into a noble, good-hearted, and just ruler. If you didn't frequently get to see him in non-Emperor mode he'd be too good to be true. Contrasted (sort of) with Emperor the haut Fletchir Giaja of Cetaganda, who isn't precisely evil per se, but is definitely not someone you'd trust further than you could comfortably spit a dead rat. Contrasted much more directly with his grandfather, the late Emperor Ezar Vorbarra, who was such a scheming bastard that he died praying there was no such thing as an afterlife, because he knew the kind of welcome he'd get if there actually was one. But all his machinations ended up getting Barrayar more or less on the right track, as well as putting grandson Gregor on the throne as opposed to his son Prince Serg, so it was definitely a case of doing what he had to do. All of the above are much better than Emperor Yuri, who appears in such backstory references as "Yuri's massacre", "Yuri Vorbarra's Defenestration of the Privy Council", and "the Dismemberment of Mad Emperor Yuri". In David Wingrove's Chung Kuo series, each of the Seven T'ang, or kings, rules a part of the world-city Chung Kuo, and together they exercise a sort of collegial emperorship. Emperor Mage Ozorne of the The Immortals series by Tamora Pierce. He's power-hungry, narcissistic, and vengeful, ending up as the Big Bad of the next book too. His nephew, Kaddar, who takes the throne after him, is a much nicer person who actually cares about ruling the country properly. Two examples in the third series of Pierce's Circle of Magic books. Empress Berenene of Namorn, who makes no bones about enjoying sport and the company of handsome young men, but is also an extremely skilled politician and ruler who has the love (and fear) of her courtiers and no intention of having her wishes subverted. The whole book is titled The Will of the Empress. She's based on Catherine the Great of Russia, which Namorn is a Fantasy Counterpart Culture of. Emperor Weishu of Yanjing is emperor of Circleverse China, more militant and capricious than Berenene. He likes to flaunt his considerable power, deals lethal punishment for the tiniest mistakes, and wants to conquer Gyongxe to increase his standing. In David Eddings' Belgariad, Emperor Zakath of Mallorea is depicted as being effective, ruthless and icily insane. In the Malloreon his insanity is revealed to be a major plot point and we get to know all the whats and whys and he becomes a full fledged member of the good side. David Eddings likes this trope. In The Tamuli, Emperor Sarabian is personally charming, intelligent and one of the few people at court who isn't corrupt. Bizarrely, his eventual coup which overthrows the quasi-democratic government and institutes an absolute monarchy under martial law. In Nick Perumov 's Diamond Sword, Wooden Sword, we have a good emperor, fighting against the evil Magocracy, which turns out not so evil (and by fighting them he actually helps the true baddies, though he understands this in time to help ruin their plans). He is ruthless enough (when needed), however, to be a realistic emperor portrayal. In the Sten series (Bunch, C and Cole, A), the Immortal Emperor starts out as a pretty nice guy, devoted to laissez-faire capitalism, and long-forgotten recipes and skills, who only sends in the troops when the realm is genuinely threatened with instability. It helps that he has a nigh-unbreakable monopoly on AM2, the fuel that the Empire runs on, and it is worth noting that someone developing/finding another source of AM2 counts as a threat of destabilising the Empire. And then a successful assassination attempt and a random bit of meteor damage to his Resurrection Ship turn him into a megalomaniacal despot who is not only ridiculously tyrannical, but no longer capable of supplying AM2 and, more importantly, no longer immortal. In The Song of Roland, there are the good and the bad kind, Charlemagne and Baligant. Naturally, they end up in a personal life-and-death clash of civilizations. Emperor Titus from the two Dark Lord of Derkholm books by Diana Wynn Jones is a case of a benevolent emperor being surrounded by corruption. He was shown in a very positive light, in sharp contrast to the corrupt politicians of the senate trying to undermine his authority and kill his sister for being of marsh-woman blood. Emperor Mornhaven of the Green Rider series. He's the heir to the Emperire of Arcosia, although after sailing to Sacoridia and losing contact with the Empire he declares himself Emperor of a new empire, Mornhavia. Empress Lionstone XIV of the early Deathstalker series was the original Big Bad and after her death she stayed a boogey-man. Not even the Recreated could truly supplant her. In The Wheel of Time, Empress Radhanan of the Seanchan Empire is only known by name in the books, and is later succeeded by her daughter, Tuon, who becomes Empress Fortuona. Whilst the Seanchan are antagonists, they are not evil (excepting the slave trade), just very different. King Gorice of Witchland in E. R. Eddison's The Worm Ouroboros, Evil Overlord and Big Bad of the book. The Lord Ruler in Mistborn is somewhere between the Evil Overlord and Shadow Emperor types until he's killed off. In the last book Elend becomes Emperor, and though he tries his hardest to be a Benevolent Emperor he's very worried about following in the Lord Ruler's footseps. Several of the characters in the Belisarius Series are Emperors(or some sort of equivalent title) which makes sense as it is about an epic war between Empires. The Malwan Emperor(before being overthrown that is) is Evil and the rest are to a greater or lesser degree Reasonable Authority Figure s. The Empress of Taysar in the Spaceforce books rules many worlds as an absolute monarch, and technically owns, personally, 'every rock and stone' on those worlds. It seems that Taysar always has an Empress, not an Emperor. Trapped on Draconica: The first one is Gothon, emperor of Baalaria, who expands his domain by swallowing those of others. The second is Taurok, who succeeds Gothon. Rana elavates from Princess to Empress by marrying him. In The Psalms of Isaak, Ahm Y'Zir is a Shadow Emperor; the founder and ruler of The Empire of Y'Zir (which reveres him as a living god), he's a hideous cyborg kept alive by a combination of Lost Technology and Blood Magic. Exactly how much direct power he has remains unclear (Regent Eliz Xhum handles the day-to-day running of things and Ahm's daughter the Crimson Empress is being groomed to take the throne once she comes of age), even his physical location remains hidden, and the processes which keep him alive have left him quite insane, but it's made clear that the Empire marches to the design he set for it two thousand years ago, and he still has hold of his ancestor's spellbook and with it enough power to pop into his enemies' dreams and threaten them. In The Witcher -saga Emperor Emhyr var Emreis of the brutal and expansionist Nilfgaard Empire, also known as the White Flame Who Dances Upon the Barrows of His Foes, is a major antagonist in the main storyline, but develops into a more well-rounded character than his Evil Overlord reputation might suggest. He's still an amoral tyrant, but not entirely without sympathetic goals or standards. Sanlitun Malkeenian Chronicle of the Unhewn Throne is of the Benevolent Emperor variation, though not everyone thinks so. His son Kaden, the current Emperor of Annur, is hopelessly inept but slowly moving down the same route. Emperor Grey in Line of Delirium. He is mostly hands-off, as far as ruling the Human Empire, and everyone still remembers how he came to power (a high-ranking Space Navy officer, who disobeyed his incompetent superiors and took charge of Earth and its colonies, prevented humanity's defeat at alien hands, established the Empire, and turned it into a galactic power). He is almost two centuries old thanks to aTan and has mostly lost interest in governance, preferring the individual worlds to run themselves, as long as they obey the Imperial laws. In his own palace on Planet Terra, he exercises his prerogative to follow any planetary law in his domain he chooses. His current sexual preferences involve prepubescent teenage girls, following a certain world's practices (he treats them with respect, though, and their families reap the benefits). He does have some harsh laws, such as a strict ban on genetic engineering and cloning. He also doesn't tolerate attempts to secede from the Empire. The population of a world attempting it ended up getting brutally slaughtered by Imperial-hired mercenaries. Also, when the Shedar colonies were invaded by the Sakkra, he had the colonies undergo Orbital Bombardment, killing all the invaders and members of La Résistance (no one really blames him, though, as attempting to retake the planets would've cost many more lives). He then proceeded to exterminate all the Sakkra in the galaxy as punishment. In Seekers of the Sky, the Roman Empire never collapsed and continues to dominate Europe (now known as the State). The ruler of the State is called the Possessor, although he's an Emperor in all but name. The backstory also mentions that the Redeemer (another Messiah sent by God after Jesus's death as a baby) became the Roman Emperor 2000 years ago, later realizing that, by doing that, he had failed God's mission. In The Goblin Emperor, Maia, the eponymous emperor. Though he's actually just half-goblin, from his mother's side. When he inherits the throne of the Elflands, many are not happy, even though Maia tries very hard to be a good emperor. The fact that he has to arrange a marriage for himself, in which the chosen lady of course will not get a veto to secure his reign, father a heir and discourage conspirators from using his underage nephew against him, does not help. It is the expected thing to do for a good emperor, but Maia feels that it is not exactly something a good person ought to do. Emperor Kellanved, instigator and ruler of the Malazan Empire in Malazan Book of the Fallen, who started out as the owner of a bar in Malaz City and assembled a group of highly competent friends with wich he took over first little Malaz Island and then entire continents. The King of Westeros in A Song of Ice and Fire is an Emperor in everything but name as he's the ruler of a large Empire made by several semi-autonomous kingdoms with their respective local lords and in one case, a prince. The man who originally united the realm, Aegon the Conqueror, pretty much did the opposite thing to the historical German Empire by demoting all of the previous Kings to High Lords rather than naming himself something like "King of Kings". The one province where the rulers are still called "prince" is the only one they weren't able to subjugate through force. Czar Alexander IV in Victoria, the Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, who rules a restored Russian Empire in the story's near-future setting. He is depicted by the author as a Good King. The Traitor Baru Cormorant has an unusual example in the Masked Emperor, who sits on the Faceless Throne of the Imperial Republic of Falcrest. Because modern Falcrest is a republic founded by an anti-monarchist revolution, its Emperor is not some famous royal heir but a meritorious citizen appointed in secret for a five-year term, which It spends masked and completely anonymous even to Itself. Every Emperor drinks an amnestic potion when It takes the throne, wiping out Its memories for the duration of Its term while keeping all other knowledge and faculties intact. Without identity, It has no self-interest except the common good, ensuring just and fair rule. However, all of the above is a lie. Falcrest's chemists never figured out how to make the potion. The Emperor is some random schmuck who gets lobotomized into a drooling vegetable and propped up on the throne for five years. Imperial decrees are handed down by a secret oligarchy called the Throne, which uses the Emperor’s seal as a convenient source of absolute authority. In Shadow Of The Conqueror, this was Dayless's official title when he ruled the Dawn Empire. Notably, he actually met the legal definition (a male monarch in charge of more than one country). Live-Action TV Doctor Who: The Dalek Emperors. Davros, their Kaled creator, held the title of Dalek Emperor for some time, sparking a civil war between Imperial (Davros) and Renegade factions. The most recent one showed up at the end of the 2005 series, having narrowly survived the Time War and developed a god complex after saving its followers from extinction. The Draconian Emperor from "Frontier in Space" is a Reasonable Authority Figure who doesn't favour war with Earth. The Doctor was apparently on good terms with the 15th Emperor for saving the Draconians from a plague and was made a nobleman. Oddly enough, one iteration of the Daleks has apparently eschewed Emperors and employs a parliamentary democracy, complete with a Dalek Prime Minister! I, Claudius, across its truly epic span, takes in Augustus (who only avoids looking evil by comparison to what comes after him), his scheming Magnificent Bastard of a wife Livia, her son Tiberius (a colossal pervert and largely useless as a ruler), the original Caligula (for more detail, consult his page), Claudius (unwillingly thrust onto the throne, but proves rather good at it - except for his complete blindness to the machinations of his own scheming third wife), and, in its last moments, Nero. The emperor of the Centauri Republic in Babylon 5 was a rather benevolent ruler at the start of the series, even apologizing to the Narn for his predecessor's atrocities. Unfortunately he died early in the second season and was replaced by Cartagia, who was assassinated by Vir Cotto and Londo Mollari and succeeded by Londo who was in turn succeeded by Vir. Power Rangers has a few villains that fit this trope: The first season of Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers has Rita Repulsa, who her minions frequently call her the Empress of Evil. The second season introduces Lord Zedd, who, in his first appearance, proclaims to be the 'Emperor of all he sees'. Later the two villains form an Unholy Matrimony. Power Rangers Zeo starts with Rita and Lord Zedd being chased away by the evil Machine Empire. Like the British Empire in Real Life, the monarchs of this political body, Mondo and Machina, call themselves king and queen, rather than emperor and empress. Power Rangers in Space reveals that above mentioned empires (along with a band of space pirates) are mere vassals of the Dimension Lord Dark Specter, who leads the United Alliance of Evil and proclaims to be the Monarch of all Evil himself, thus also fitting type 1 of this trope. Strangely enough, when Astronema takes over after Dark Specter's destruction, she is proclaimed to be the queen of all evil, rather than empress. Power Rangers S. P. D. has Emperor Gruum as Big Bad and ruler over the Troobian Empire until it is revealed Gruum has a Man Behind the Man in the form of Omni the Magnificence, which is a huge godlike being rivaling Dark Specter in terms of size and power. Power Rangers Super Mega Force has Emperor Mavro of the Armada. Many evil factions in Super Sentai are Empires. Especially in the older series. This, off course, means that these factions are led by Emperors. Examples are Emperor Aton, leading the Tailed-People Clan Jashinka Empire, Underground Emperor Zeba leading the Underground Empire Tube and Emperor Ackdos Gill, leader of the Space Empire Zangyack The Goa'uld in Stargate SG-1 were divided between a number of Evil Overlords with claims to godhood, but several aspired to control over the entire Goa'uld domain. Ra of the first movie was retconned to have been a symbolic Emperor who maintained the fiction of unity, with subsequent infighting breaking out among the other System Lords over his succession. Several come close (including Lord Yu, who is a Composite Character of two mythical or semi-mythical Chinese emperors), but Ba'al is the only one to outright claim to be the 'Sovereign of the Goa'uld Domain' in his near-victory. Star Trek has the Romulan Emperor, ruler of the Romulan Star Empire. The Klingons also use to have an Emperor but the position was abolished somewhere around three centuries before the first series begins. The office gets restored under solely religious and decorative functions once the clone of Khaless (the first emperor) is created in the 24th century. The Mirror Universe has the Terran Emperor, though the only one we ever see is the mirror counterpart of Philippa Georgiou in Star Trek: Discovery, whose full title is Her most Imperial Majesty, Mother of the Fatherland, Overlord of Vulcan, Dominus of Qo'noS, Regina Andor, Philippa Georgiou Augustus Iaponius Centarius. As mentioned in the literature section, the King of Westeros in Game of Thrones is in reality the textbook definition of an emperor despite the name "King", as he is the ruler of seven kingdoms, each with their own laws and local nobilities. Tabletop Games Warhammer has Karl Franz of The Empire, one of the few benevolent figures in the setting, a savvy ruler, and a military genius who leads from the back of his griffon while wielding the titular warhammer. Other emperor figures include Lord Settra The Imperishable of Khemri, who is able to boss around the other Tomb Kings, and the dragon-riding Witch King Malekith of the Dark Elves, who is a real momma's boy. One of the major figures in Warhammer 40, 000 is known only as The God-Emperor of Mankind. An incredibly powerful psychic genius, he guided humanity as a Shadow Emperor before launching the Great Crusade to reunite mankind in an enlightened, secular galactic empire. But the Horus Heresy wrecked all that, so the Emperor has spent the last ten thousand years stuck on a soul-eating life support system that powers the psychic lighthouse necessary for interstellar travel, while his Imperium has devolved into a totalitarian Vestigial Empire that praises him as its god even while jumping over the Moral Event Horizon in His name. The fluff suggests that the modern Imperium's worst actions are misinterpretations of the Emperor's original intent, but the more we learn about the guy in the Horus Heresy series, the more morally ambiguous he comes across as. He definitely wanted the best for humanity, but to that end he ruthlessly suppressed religion in an attempt to starve the Chaos Gods, and while not as xenocidal as the modern Imperium, still offered human colonies influenced by alien civilizations a choice between forsaking their old ways and annihilation. His intelligence and psyker powers led him to claim an Omniscient Morality License, but he made some catastrophically poor decisions leading up to the Horus Heresy, and was a terrible parent to his clone-sons. All in all, the Emperor wavers between the Messianic Archetype and a Well-Intentioned Extremist. The Scarlet Empress in Exalted cultivates an appearance of moral ambivalence: while responsible for saving the world, and running one of the most stable nations she also ruthlessly pursued war, and deliberately made her government so that it would fall apart with out her and raised her children to fight among themselves for her favor. In actuality, she originally gained control of the Imperial Defense Grid via human sacrifice, and just recently sacrificed her youngest daughter (just 12 years old! ) to one of the rulers of Hell in a failed attempt to gain at least in the first case, saved Creation by doing so. The setting goes out of its way to make the Empress' morality as grey as possible. Empress Kiova in Heroscape started out evil, but turned good. Also, oddly enough, her husband bears the title of "General. " Legend of the Five Rings has had several emperors over three dynasties. As the game is based on East Asian myths, the emperors are usually the benevolent variety, but at least one was the Evil Overlord variety, and another was a mix of that and the Shadow Emperor style after a Demonic Possession. Emperor Strephon in the Traveller default time of the GURPS version is a Reasonable Authority Figure. Queen Abrogail II of Cheliax in Pathfinder. Though she doesn't bear the title of empress, she still rules over not just Cheliax but also the neighboring lands of Nidal and Isger, who follow her edicts through puppet governments. On the other hand, the only character in the Inner Sea region who actually calls himself an emperor (among other titles) is Grand Prince Stavian III of the Empire of Taldor—a small, sniveling little man too small for his imperial crown who can barely keep his shambled empire together. He claims rulership over all of Taldor's former holdings, including Cheliax, but has no power to actually enforce his rule. He barely does anything as emperor, leaving the actual rule of Taldor to the empire's overburdened and inefficient bureaucracy. The Giovanni dynasty and later the Barbados one in Anima: Beyond Fantasy. Not only Emperors (Empress in the case of the current one), concentrating on them both the political and militar powers, but also the heads of the Church of Abel. All but one of them can be considered to fall more or less into the benevolent category of above. The Emperors of the Third Imperium in Traveller. For the most part they are presented by canon as Reasonable Authority Figures. BattleTech: In last days of the Terran Hegemony, Stefan Amaris assassinated the young First Lord Richard Cameron, and the rest of the Cameron line, and took over the Hegemony, he stamped out rebellion with nukes, and executed anyone who failed him the slightest. In the end Aleksandr Kerensky and the SLDF captured him and was executed by the Star League. Even today Amaris remembered as the most sinister man in the Inner Sphere. Pinballs Roleplay In The Gamer's Alliance, Takeshi Ofuchi is the Emperor of Yamato at the beginning of the Unification of Yamato arc in the Third Age. He's very much a selfish tyrant and a Sorcerous Overlord, but he's eventually betrayed by one of his trusted generals, Shogun Masamori Hyuga, who assassinates him and takes his place as the leader of Yamato (albeit Masamori never crowns himself emperor and instead keeps using the title shogun). Video Games Final Fantasy II was the first JRPG to play with this trope in detail, though it's since become genre standard fare. Emperor Mateus starts out as a typical Big Bad who commands monsters from hell and wants to conquer the world, well, just because. Then the heroes kill him, which has unforeseen consequences: his spirit goes to Hell, takes over, and comes back stronger than before. The GBA remake adds a sidestory where we learn that his soul was actually split in half at death, and his 'good' side has not only gone to Heaven, but taken over there as well. Light Is Not Good, indeed. Final Fantasy VI likewise features The Empire as the main enemy, led by Emperor Gestahl. Until one of his lieutenants, Kefka Palazzo, already a messed-up-in-the-head Psycho for Hire, decides to go Omnicidal Maniac... Ganondorf from The Legend of Zelda series is arguably this, considering that he repeatedly is shown as ruler of the whole Dark World, a shadow mirror of the game's world. He would become one whenever he takes over Hyrule on top of whatever dark realm he had control of at the beginning of the game, otherwise, he's referred to as "The King of Evil" (or "Thieves", before the evil). Suikoden features the Scarlet Moon Emperor as the Big Bad and Final Boss, although the real villain is the (Wo)man Behind the Man, Lady Windy. Breath of Fire I features as antagonists the Dark Dragons, who are led by the Big Bad Emperor Zog (who, oddly, is the only Dark Dragon who is actually, you know, a dragon. All the other Dark Dragons are insectile monster thingys). Furthermore, while Zog is the Emperor, the Dark Dragons' organization never seems to be referred to as an Empire. Breath of Fire IV features Fou Lu, the founder and first emperor of the Fou Empire, being persecuted by the very empire he founded under the orders of incumbent Emperor Soniel. In Ninja Gaiden, the enemies are all members of the demonic Vigoor Empire, and naturally the game's Big Bad is a superdemon known only as the Vigoor Emperor. Jade Empire features the Emperor as the Big Bad. He's also a kungfu-fighting undead ghost... thingy. After he's dead, The Starscream claims the throne and takes over as the Big Bad. On the other hand, the Open Palm ending has the first Emperor's daughter ascending to the throne, and the "Where Are They Now? " Epilogue says she's a good leader. In the Closed Palm ending you decide The Starscream had the right idea, but didn't go far enough. Throughout The Elder Scrolls series and in the backstory, the leaders of various Cyrodiilic Empires have held the title of Emperor. Dozens are noted throughout the series lore, and while they vary greatly in personality and actions, the vast majority have leaned toward the " benevolent " end of the spectrum. Some of the particularly notable examples: The very first Cyrodiilic Emperor was St. Alessia, also known as the "Slave Queen". Born into Slavery during the Ayleid rule of Cyrodiil, she escaped and prayed to the Aedra for aid. As the Ayleids were primarily Daedra worshipers, the Aedra answered her prayers as part of a Bargain with Heaven. They sent Alessia divine aid, both in subtle and direct ways, allowing Alessia to defeat the Ayleids and drive the survivors out of Cyrodiil. Alessia was crowned as the first Empress of Cyrodiil, declared that the religion of the Eight Divines (which worships the Aedra who sent her aid) would be the official religion of her new Empire, was " imbued with Dragon Blood " by Akatosh (the draconic chief deity of the Aedra), and had her soul placed in the central stone of the Amulet of Kings which symbolized Akatosh's covenant with mankind to protect Mundus (the mortal plane) from the forces of Oblivion (the Daedra). This also meant that all recognized Cyrodiilic emperors would also be Barrier Maidens, able to perform the ritual of lighting the "Dragonfires", which limit the power and influence of the Daedric Princes within Mundus. Over a thousand years later, the Alessian Empire would fall apart due to religious infighting and provincial uprisings. The Ruby Throne of Cyrodiil would sit empty until Reman Cyrodiil rose to power. His father, the petty king Hrol, would be visited in a vision by the spirit of St. Alessia and Akatosh himself, with this union creating Reman. Reman was birthed from the land of Cyrodiil itself, found born atop a mound of mud the size of a small mountain with the Amulet of Kings, long since lost, in hand. He was coronated as a child and rose to the height of his power after defeating the Akaviri invaders. Though he never took the title of Emperor himself, his lineage founded the Second Cyrodiilic Empire, which would come to dominate nearly all of Tamriel. Following a series of assassinations, the Reman line would end, leading to the beginning of the 2nd Era of Tamriellic history. During a period known as the Interregnum, Tamriel would descend into chaos with various groups vying for control. Out of this chaos came one of Tamriel's most legendary figures - Tiber Septim. He was believed to be of Nordic descent, but beyond that, he has several highly-conflicting origin stories with the truth likely lost forever to history, as well as buried under centuries of Imperial propaganda, and possibly even permanently changed following his apotheosis. He was either born as Talos Stormcrown in Atmora or Hjalti Early-Beard in High Rock. In either case, he spent his youth in Skyrim and rose to prominence when he, at the age of 20, used the Voice to defeat the Witchmen at Old Hroldan. He was declared "Ysmir, Dragon of the North" by the Greybeards and then came into the service of the Colovian Petty King Cuhlecain as a General. When Cuhlecain was assassinated, Septim took over Cuhlecain's young empire. From there, he would become many things - hero, conqueror, villain - and ultimately, the Emperor of the first truly pan-Tamrielic Empire. He is said to be descended metaphysically from the Slave Queen Alessia, as well as Reman Cyrodiil. As a Dragonborn (in both senses of the word), his dynasty was one of several supernatural barriers to keep Tamriel and Oblivion distinct. Septim (possibly among others), through unclear and hotly debated means, would become the Deity of Human Origin Talos after his death, becoming the Ninth Divine. Uriel Septim VII was the 21st Emperor of the Septim line, and the Emperor during each game from Arena to his death in Oblivion. Uriel VII was both The Good King and a Reasonable Authority Figure, genuinely caring for the people of Tamriel. Nearly everything he did as Emperor wass for the greater good of the people of Tamriel. Due to the lost strength of his legions and rampant unrest in the provinces, he has to rely on his wit in order to avert multiple crises for the Empire. Uriel VII would unfortunately be assassinated by the Mythic Dawn to begin the Oblivion Crisis. Martin Septim was the bastard son (and Hidden Backup Prince) of Uriel VII. He plays a major part in the events of Oblivion, as a Supporting Leader and Reasonable Authority Figure. Ultimately, he sacrifices himself to end the Oblivion Crisis and to permanently seal the barrier between Oblivion and Mundus. Between Oblivion and Skyrim, the Septim Empire severely crumbles. The local warlord Titus Mede is able to capture the Ruby Throne, and declares himself Emperor. Later, Mede's grandson, Titus Mede II, inherits the throne. The reformed Aldmeri Dominion, the ancient enemy of the Cyrodiilic Empires under the leadership of the extremist Thalmor, goes to war with Mede's Empire. Titus Mede II was responsible for both leading the Empire to victory against and signing the highly controversial White-Gold Concordat, a treaty which (among other things) bans the worship of Talos throughout the Empire (though it is heavily hinted to be a purely political move to buy the Legion time to prepare for the inevitable next war with the Dominion). Due to Talos' popularity there, Skyrim erupts into Civil War over this move. In-game, he is met at the end of the Dark Brotherhood questline, where he's your target. He comes off as a surprisingly personable individual and remarkably calm for a man facing his killer. When you take into consideration all the things he has done up until your meeting, the worst thing that can be said about him is that his successes are overshadowed by his failures. An alien Emperor is the Big Bad and final boss of MDK 2. He's so big that part of the fight involves him eating you, and you fighting his internal organs. Emperor Percival Tachyon, the Big Bad of Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction. "Emperor" is likely a self-imposed title, but he has conquered a galaxy, so not many folk are in a position to object. Tales of the Abyss has Emperor Peony IX, a Benevolent Emperor — this is the man that commissions battle costumes for the party and goes incognito to fight crime. Despite his goofy tendencies and extreme informality, he's the most reliable Reasonable Authority Figure in the game. Since Avernum features The Empire, it makes sense that it features emperors as well. Emperor Hawthorne was a Big Bad in Avernum 1. After your adventuring party assassinates him, Empress Prazac takes charge and is definitely benevolent. She gets assassinated in turn at the start of Avernum 5 and the choices your adventuring party makes decides who becomes the next emperor. The Emperor of Cantha in Guild Wars is shown to be a decent and well-meaning man, but one who's hopelessly out of touch with the people he rules. One player in each galaxy plays the emperor in Imperium Nova. Because an actual player plays the emperor, the style of rulership in the game is quite varied. Every one of them is inevitably labeled an Evil Overlord by his or her opponents. Emperor Solarius of Overlord II is of the Shadow Emperor variety, having risen from power by taking advantage of the people's fear of magic due to the plague which he himself unintentionally caused by presenting himself as something of a Dark Messiah out to exterminate magical beings. He's never seen personally addressing his people, a duty he leaves for his Professional Butt-Kisser Marius and constantly hides behind a mask to hid the fact that he's an Elf. His true plan however is to collect all the magic from the lands to prepare for his ascension to Godhood. Emperor Geldoblame of Baten Kaitos is an obvious Evil Overlord Big Bad. He eventually gets deceived and betrayed by Melodia, but that's not to say he didn't have it coming. The Emperor is the Big Bad in Secret of Mana, sending out his Dragons to undo seals on the Mana Seeds in order to unleash a Forgotten Super Weapon in order to Take Over the World. But gets taken out by the Man Behind the Man Thanatos, who wishes to destroy it. The usual Big Bad of Mortal Kombat, Shao Kahn. In storyline, Onaga came before him, though. Thanks to the Continuity Reboot of Mortal Kombat 9, by Mortal Kombat X a Mayincatec fellow named "Kotal Kahn" is now the ruling body of Outworld (this also confirms that "Kahn" is merely a title, not part of Shao Kahn's full name). Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 has Emperor Yoshiro, who also believes in Authority Equals Asskicking. Emperor Strada from Asura's Wrath, a rare good guy example. He gets killed off by Lord Deus in the second episode of the game. StarCraft when Mengsk overthrew the Confederacy, he immediately makes himself as the Emperor of the new Terran Dominion. In a figurative sense we have Street Fighter 's Sagat, whose Red Baron title is "Emperor of Muay Thai". He has no political power, but is one of the most badass fighters in the whole series. (Plus he was a high-ranked member of the Shadaloo organization, but ultimately left them. ) In Street Fighter III, the Big Bad Gill can be seen as the emperor of his cult, which may be a Path of Inspiration. Out of all the rulers seen in Fire Emblem, the ones that hold the Emperor/Empress title are few: Fire Emblem: Shadow Dragon and the Blade of Light: In Hardin 's ending, he marries Nyna and becomes the king of Archanea... but in Mystery of the Emblem, he pulls a Demonic Possession -induced Face–Heel Turn, reorganizes the Kingdom into The Empire with himself as its emperor, and becomes the Big Bad. Fire Emblem Gaiden: Rudolf is the emperor of the Rigelian Empire who is waging war on Zofia. After his death, his son Alm briefly assumes the role of de facto emperor before marrying Celica and uniting the continent as a king. Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War: The second generation's Arvis, formerly the Duke of Velthomer, who becomes Emperor after marrying the Princess of Grannvale (Dierdre) and unifying a good part of the continent under his leadership... which later turns into a tyrannical reign under the influence of the Lopto Sect. Also, Seliph at the end of the game (who ironically is the son of Dierdre with another man, Sigurd. It's... a long story. ). Fire Emblem: The Sacred Stones: "Silent Emperor" Vigarde of Grado. Before the main game, Grado was a rare example of a good Empire, with Emperor Vigarde spending a large chunk of his day listening to the needs of his people and his son Prince Lyon being a kind-hearted (if slightly misguided) soul who truly wished to use his knowledge of Black Magic to aid his people and the world at large. Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance and Radiant Dawn: Sanaki, Empress of Begnion. Though technically speaking, the true Empress should be her long-lost older sister, Micaiah. Sanaki remains as Empress, however, whereas Micaiah becomes the Queen of Daein instead. Fire Emblem Awakening has Emperor Walhart of Valm. He's a fairly standard "conquer and subjugate" emperor villain, although he does so out of a sincere belief that his actions will lead to peace under his rule. Fire Emblem: Three Houses has two characters going by the title of Emperor. Actually, they're one and the same. A mysterious masked villain called the Flame Emperor spends the first half of the game manipulating everyone to destroy the Church of Seiros. Edelgard is the heir apparent to the Adrestian Empire. Shortly before the end of Part I, she convinces her old and infirm father to abdicate and officially assumes the title of Emperor, which she holds for the rest of the game. Interestingly, she is a rare example of an Emperor who is a protagonist, provided you choose to join her at the beginning of the game and stay with her when she makes her move against the Church. While his official title is merely "Demon King", Bowser of the Super Mario Bros. series fits this trope, as he has a massive empire that he plans to expand, sometimes across the entire universe. He even has countless Kings as mere high-ranking minions of his. In Final Fantasy Dimensions, the Emperor of Avalon also known as Elgo looks like an Evil Overlord Tin Tyrant type at least his empty suit of armor does but he's actually a Shadow Emperor scheming to obtain eternal life and power from the Crystals. He's such a serious threat that the Crystals split the world into two dimensions just to get away from him. He "aids" the Warriors of Light and Darkness so he can personally rip the Crystals' power out of them. From Battleborn: The Empress Lenore former monarch of the star-spanning Jennerit Empire before Lothar Rendain usurped her. Having usurped Empress Lenore to become the leader of her empire now renamed the Jennerit Imperium, Big Bad Lothar Rendain is naturally this by position. In Ravenmark, the Empire of Estellion has recently lost its beloved Emperor Sergius Corvius, kicking off a Succession Crisis. While the late Emperor's daughter Adrise has no desire to become Empress, Adrise's younger brother Gratian wants nothing less than that. The crisis comes from Sergius not wanting his son from ascending to the Obsidian Perch after his death, secretly grooming another successor from the numerous ranks of royal bastards. In the sequel, Empress Livia Corvius (AKA the Scarlet Empress) has become ruthless in her determination to crush her enemies, costing the Empire its allies and starting a Mêlée à Trois with the Commonwealth of Esotre (a former ally) and the newly-risen Varishah Federation (made up of former Imperial conquests and the remaining Kaysani. The highest attainable title in Crusader Kings is Emperor, which the player can attain once their territorial holdings encompass multiple kingdoms. Alternatively, it is possible to simply choose to play as an emperor from the outset of a campaign if the player chooses, for example, to play as the Holy Roman or Byzantine imperial families. Then the challenge is staying in power. From Dragon Age: Empress Celene of the Orlesian Empire is a female example. She might appear like The High Queen at first glance, but is an utterly ruthless Bitch in Sheep's Clothing, since she doesn't consider elves worthy of living (except for her lover Briala) and is willing to make an mountain out of their corpses if it means securing her power. In Dragon Age: Inquisition, she may become better if reconciling with Briala or else she will remain the same. If the Inquisitor plays their cards right, she can be replaced by her cousin Grand Duke Gaspard, who is a straight example of this trope, since his policies are expantionism, warmongering and ruling through force rather than diplomacy. The Tevinter Imperium has the Archon, which is an position similar to the Roman Emperor (either by blood relation, apprenticeship to the previous holder or being elected by the legislative body). Throughout the history of Thedas, Archons had a sinister reputation as Sorcerous Overlords among the southern nations. However, the current one by the time the series takes place, Archon Radonis, is portrayed as a Reasonable Authority Figure with a soft spot for cats. Web Comics In The Inexplicable Adventures of Bob!, Princess Voluptua's dad is the Emperor of the local space empire (which includes Earth, though humanity is unaware of it). She clearly has some issues with him, as do his subjects the dragons of planet Butane, but there have been no indications that he is actually evil. Drive: The current Emperor killed his uncle for the position, and framed one of the protagonists. He fits the President Charisma description above. Karate Bears have a very SMALL empire. While all the Demiurges of Kill Six Billion Demons are described as emperors, Solomon David is the truest example, being the only one who actually governs his domain instead of just lording over it with his overwhelming power. He’s described as a just, even-handed, and incredibly brutal dictator, with at least one massacre attributed to his name, and his Celestial Empire is peaceful and prosperous but low on freedoms. Web Original Western Animation Averted in Avatar: The Last Airbender. When the Big Bad, Fire Nation's Fire Lord Ozai decides to promote himself to ruler of the entire world, the title he comes up with is simply "Phoenix King", even though there is already an "Earth King" (and several lesser Earth Kingdom Kings, like King Bumi). This was probably done because "Phoenix Emperor" is way too many syllables to be practical. The Earth King himself is an example of the Benevolent Emperor, though his Grand Secretariat is the one who actually rules the country. On the other hand, in Sequel Series The Legend of Korra, when Kuvira usurps Earth King Wu, she declares her new nation the Earth Empire, and herself its Emperor. One of the cases where Authority Equals Asskicking — or rather, Asskicking Equals Authority, as she conquered her way to the title. The Fairly OddParents! : Tired of being ignored by her husband and her son, the Queen of Yugopotamia used Baby Poof's scary (by Yugopotamian standards) cuteness to rule through him, passing baby Poof as Emperor. Samurai Jack has the benevolent flavor in Jack's father, who was the Emperor of Japan when Aku first invaded. He had a magic katana forged from a piece of his own soul and a substantial boon from several pantheons, kicked Aku's ass with it, and when Aku appeared a second time, gave the sword to his son so that he might do the same. In the same vein, Jack himself technically qualifies as a benevolent Emperor since he is his father's only descendant, and is busting his ass to find a way to undo Aku's oppression. However, since his kingdom was destroyed even before he got sent to the future, Jack has nothing to be emperor of anymore. And then he went back to the past in the final episode. What little we see of his royal lifestyle on the epilogue shows that he's doing a good job himself. Real Life The Western tradition of this trope can be traced back to the Emperors of Rome, who during their reigns ruled one of the greatest empires in the world. Rulers from earlier eras ( Alexander the Great, the High Kings of Persia) had a similar level of power and authority, but the title of Emperor originated with Caesar Augustus, at least in the West - India had the "Samrat Chakravartin" ("ideal universal ruler") Ashoka, China had the "Huangdi" ("sovereign of all under heaven"). The word "emperor" derives from the Latin term Imperator, or "commander" (it's also where we get the word "imperative" from), as Rome had historical reasons to oppose anyone who claimed the title of King. note  Similarly, the German and Russian words "Kaiser" and "Czar" are both derived from "Caesar". During the Dark and Middle Ages, European rulers who called themselves "emperor" were specifically invoking the Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the Roman state so their claim was obvious, the Holy Roman Empire laid claim to the former Roman empire in the West which (initially) they contested with Constantinople, the Russian Czars and Ottoman Sultans both claimed to be Byzantinian successors, and Serbia and Bulgaria both based it on Roman/Greek traditions. This practice continued until nearly the present day: until the mid-twentieth century, there was always at least one European ruler (and sometimes several) in power whose title invoked Caesar, Augustus, or some derivation thereof. Only in later eras did the title become removed from a continuation of the Roman Empire, and became used when a country was really frickin' big or powerful, prime examples being Mexico, Brazil, and Napoleonic France. Other times it was used to make a political point: the Kings of Prussia declared themselves German Emperors to make themselves higher-ranked than other German kings (like the one of Bavaria) without having to demote them (German unification being conducted by integrating the existing German states into a federal structure rather than starting from scratch); Napoleon III did it to link his regime to that of his uncle; the rulers of Austria needed a new title after the Holy Roman Empire disappeared and didn't want to step down in rank; Queen Victoria had herself declared Empress of India to make it clear that Britain was more powerful than Germany (and because she didn't want to be outranked by her daughter, who had married the heir to the German throne) note; and a couple others besides. However, Jean-Bédel Bokassa's short-lived Empire was little short of a farce. According to The Other Wiki England had already been technically an empire since 1533, however the titles King and Kingdom were retained. It is however unknown, what effects the Acts of Union had on this… The trope codifier in East Asia is Qin Shi Huangdi, the "First Emperor" of China. The word for "emperor" in Chinese and Chinese-influenced languages was first coined by Qin Shi Huangdi himself, by combining the two characters hitherto used for semidivine sage-kings from ancient Chinese mythologies. Outside China, there were four more emperor dynasties in the Sinosphere: the Tennō (literally "Heavenly Sovereign") of Japan (still reigning today) and the extremely short-lived imperial dynasty of the Korean Empire, formed in the late 19th century. No other contenders to the title were there, mostly because no-one else was bold enough to use the title that could challenge the primacy of the Chinese huangdi: Japan, being an island country, was isolated from the rest of East Asia and thus could use whatever title they wanted, while Korea only declared itself an empire when China was in decline and torn by civil war. The monarchs of Vietnam (especially those who had gave invaders from China a good beat) zig-zagged this by proclaiming themselves "emperors" while accepting the title of king from China as the formal recognition of sovereignty and diplomatic relation. There was also the short-lived Empire of Vietnam propped up by the Japanese during World War II. Many polities outside of Europe and East Asia also had imperial titles. The Achaemenid Persian rulers claimed the title Khshayathiyanam Khshayathiya, later corrupted into Shah-en-shah (King of Kings). Later on, this title was changed into Padishah (Great King), used by Persian rulers as well as the Ottoman Sultans. The Islamic world in general has the title of Caliph, meaning "inheritor". It was rougly comparable to the title of Emperor: it implied the bearer was a successor of Prophet Muhammad himself and thus, in theory, given right to rule over the entire Muslim community. However, from the late Middle Ages onwards, the Abbasid caliphs gradually lost power, becoming Puppet Kings to other rulers. Caliphs would once again become the leading power in the Middle East during the early Renaissance, but only because the Ottoman Sultans (mentioned above) took the title for themselves. After the Ottomans, the title is vacant - though the "Islamic State" terrorist group has tried to claim it for their leader. Ancient India had several imperial dynasties stretching from the ancient Maurya and Gupta dynasties to the heavily Persian-influenced Mughal dynasty. Many of the older Emperors during the Buddhist era took on the title "Chakravartin" or "turner of the wheel (of Dharma)" referring to an idealized universal monarch, and "Samrat" or (literally) "Ruler of all", and the Mughals took on the Persian title "Padishah" or "Badshah". Ethiopian monarchs for nearly 3, 000 years (according to tradition, at least) used the title Nəgusä Nägäst ("King of Kings"), which was translated as "Emperor". Legend has it that the first Emperor was a son of the Biblical Solomon, which is perhaps the only reason a small African nation was able to get away with calling itself an Empire. Well that and the fact that it was the only African nation to successfully resist European colonialism purely by military force, thoroughly embarrassing the Italians in the process. Interesting Real Life twist on the trope: Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico. He wasn't really a ruling emperor; he was just some British guy who went a little bonkers following a bad trading deal that left his funds in shambles. He was enormously popular among the inhabitants of San Francisco, though - he got entry to the city's finest restaurants and theatres for free, had his own currency which was officially accepted by the city, single-handedly prevented a violent Anti-Chinese riot from breaking out, the townsfolk rallied to get him released when he was unjustly arrested by the San Francisco Police Department, and his funeral was attended by 30, 000 people at a time when San Francisco's population was 230, 000. Most of the tales surrounding Emperor Norton are really PR ploy invented by San Francisco's businesses and citizens, however. While many businesses were happy to use Norton as a prop to accentuate the city's image for tolerance and eccentricity, the man himself was actually treated miserably most of the time. His dogs were poisoned. He was kicked out of many business establishments. He lived in a crummy room at a cheap boarding house with only shabby clothes and not much more to his name. Only his funeral, ironically, matched the hype. The Bible had Solomon. Edward I and his grandson Edward III were the closest pre-UK England had for Emperors as they are the only monarchs powerful enough to get the title "Arbiter of Europe". Henry the Second and Henry V had significant continental possessions as well, the latter being the only English monarch to have his claim to the throne of France legitimized in treaty. Later, Queen Victoria took the title "Empress of India". Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, and George VI were all styled "Emperor of India" after her until the title was abolished. Sometimes they were referred to as "King-Emperor". As noted above, the status of the British monarchs is complicated, The Other Wiki even has an extra article for British Emperor. Medieval Spain had Several Emperors of all Spain. The first emperor in recorded history was Sargon of Akkad, whose armies overran most of Iraq in the twenty-fourth century, BCE. He was able to do this because he also had the first professional army in recorded history, giving him a decisive edge over his contemporaries. For thousands of years to come the kings of Assyria and Babylon would take Sargon as their idol and aim to equal or succeed his achievements. The First Emperor of México was Agustín de Iturbide, later Agustín I. After a brilliant and undefeated military career in the War of Independence on the side of the royalists, Iturbide crafted his own plan to liberate México. Said plan expressly called for an Independent México, with a Mexican congress but a Spanish ruler, leaving himself out of the possibility of becoming Emperor. After almost single-handedly achieving the Independence in 7 months, a treaty was signed with the last Viceroy of New Spain, who added a clause that allowed for congress to elect the Mexican ruler if Spain declined it's right to appoint a king for México. Spain refused to acknowledge the Mexican Independence, and public opinion turned to Iturbide, who was, for once in this trope, reluctant to take the charge (he already held what would be the equivalent to the presidency at the moment). A public proclamation then took place, hailing him as Emperor. The next day, congress ratified the election and he was made Emperor. But congress had declared itself sovereign from day one, which led to power struggles between the two powers. After members of congress conspired to kill him, Iturbide was forced to disband congress and reform it as a smaller organism, which gave his political enemies a rallying point. Iturbide eventually elected to resign and exile himself and thus ended the First Mexican Empire. The Second Emperor of México was Maximilian of Habsburg. He was installed by the french intervention in México, which in turned was brought about by the Mexican conservatives seeking to counter the U. S support of the liberal party. Maximilian accepted the offer on the condition that he be convinced that the Mexican people wanted him as a ruler. Maximilian was also largely a benevolent ruler, who truly sought to help Mexico become a better country and had many liberal ideas. However, as the U. S emerged from its Civil War to support the liberal government of Juárez, the French retreated their support of Maximilian, as they were facing the coming Franco-Prussian War. Choosing to stand his ground, Maximilian and his forces could not prevail against the U. S backed liberals. He was captured and unjustly executed by President Juárez, who had compromised Mexican sovereignty and territory in order to secure U. S support of his regime. Genghis Khan, first Khagan of the Mongol Empire. The title "Khagan" can be translated as "Khan of Khans", similar to the "King of Kings" titles mentioned in the entries for Persia and Ethiopia above. Began his ruling career leading a small tribe in east Asia, died ruling the largest land empire in history. After his death the empire split into four Khanates which themselves could have been considered empires in terms of size and power, although officially there was only one Khagan to whom the other Khans were subordinate.

Emperor text to speech.


7:26 that screech + that blast beat + that riff = automatic frost bite. Emperor clock company. Bang Chat ke manager evos buat Evos Reborn. If I may * UUUUUUUUUUUUUUURRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSHHHHHHHHYHYHHUHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH. If you like Emperor, you may also like: Nothing Great About Britain by slowthai On his debut record, slowthai dismantles stereotypes of British culture over trebly hip-hop beats. go to album The Surgery EP by Kwam & Sketch'E Grime, a descendant of garage, dancehall and hip-hop born roughly a decade ago on the streets of the UK, is now entering maturity, with several of its stars finding themselves experiencing the trappings (and the traps) of major label success. But there’s also an increasing universality in its subject matter and themes, and a playfulness … Continue reading Album of the Week: The Surgery EP → Bandcamp Album of the Day Dec 5, 2011 Station Wagon [SINGLE] by Louis VI Infusing his trademark style with trap, this London jazz drummer-turned-rapper and producer is playfully sharp-edged on his new single. Bandcamp New & Notable Feb 6, 2019 A Work of Heart by Ty Found Objects: Stolen Art EP by Juga-Naut Bleeds (Deluxe Version) by Roots Manuva Deluxe edition of the classic Brit-hop album, with ten brand-new remixes and session tracks. Raw, deep, and essential. Bandcamp New & Notable Jul 6, 2016 SOUP by Chairman Maf.

Emperor claudius. Emperor palpatine theme. Sad, almost liked the dark angels for a moment. Otherwise, pretty cool.

I gaze into the Moon which makes my mind pure as crystal lakes

9:53 khengg. Ihsahn, the Eric Clapton of metal m. Gw kangen dulu si pas member evos :kner,jess,oura,donkey,ios. Snoke's voice is very scary. Page Transparency See More Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. See actions taken by the people who manage and post content. Page created - August 19, 2013. Please tell me some more songs like this one. Emperor penguins. Instagram: Follow the studio for work updates instagram Follow the studio for work updates INSIGHT: Digging deeper into ESG INSIGHT LinkedIn: Follow for career opportunities linkedin Follow for career opportunities Twitter: Follow for news and events twitter Follow for news and events NEWS: Introducing Emperor's new Employee Board NEWS Introducing Emperor's new Employee Board.

Emperor penguin. To my own thoughts and belief! Its there best Album and shows bands like Dimmu B,and others how to make a True Ambient Dark and Heavy Black Metal Album that will stand the test of all eternity! imp. About Emperor X Popular Emperor X songs Allahu Akbar Emperor X Erica Western Teleport €30, 000 Wasted on the Senate Floor Schopenhauer in Berlin Canada Day Low Orbit Ion Cannon Oversleepers International Erica Western Geiger Counter Defiance [For Elise Sunderhuse] Show all songs by Emperor X Popular Emperor X albums 2017 The Orlando Sentinel 2014 Dirt Dealership Western Teleport 2011 Central Hug / Friendarmy / Fractaldunes 2005 Tectonic Membrane/Thin Strip on an Edgeless Platform 2004 Show all albums by Emperor X.

Emperor, feminine empress, title designating the sovereigns of the ancient Roman Empire and, by derivation, various later European rulers; it is also applied loosely to certain non-European monarchs. Read More on This Topic ancient Rome: Cult of the emperors Among the institutions most important in softening the edges of regional differences was the cult of the emperors. In one sense, it originated… In republican Rome ( c. 509–27 bc), imperator denoted a victorious general, so named by his troops or by the Senate. Under the empire (after 27 bc), it was regularly adopted by the ruler as a forename and gradually came to apply to his office. In medieval times, Charlemagne, king of the Franks and of the Lombards, was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas Day, 800. Thenceforward until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 there were two emperors in the Christian world, the Byzantine and the Western. The term “Holy Roman emperor” is now generally used, for convenience, to designate the Western sovereigns, though the title was at first simply “emperor” ( imperator; the German form kaiser being derived from the Roman caesar), then “august emperor, ” then, from 971, “Roman emperor. ” The addition of “Holy” to the designation of the emperor, in historical writing, follows from its having been added to that of the empire ( sacrum imperium, 1157). The dissolution of Frankish Europe into separate kingdoms led eventually to the imperial title’s passing in 962 to the East Frankish or German king Otto I, who was also king of Italy (the kingdom of Burgundy was further acquired by Conrad II in 1032). Thenceforward to 1806, though not all German kings were emperors (crowned by the pope), there were no emperors who were not German kings, so that election to the German kingship came to be de facto necessary for attainment of the imperial title—with the final result that from 1508 to 1806 the style “emperor elected” or, more briefly, “emperor” was given to the German king in anticipation of his coronation by the pope (only one such coronation, that of Charles V in 1530, actually took place in the period). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Outside the Frankish and German sphere of influence the title emperor was sometimes assumed by princes supreme over more than one kingdom: thus Sancho III the Great of Navarre styled himself “emperor of Spain” on his annexation of Léon (1034); Alfonso VI of Léon and Castile called himself “emperor of the Two Religions, ” to show his supremacy over Christians and Muslims alike; and Alfonso VII took the title “emperor of all Spain” (1135). The Russian tsar Peter I the Great assumed the title imperator on Oct. 22, 1721. From that point on male rulers were conventionally called tsar, whereas female rulers were always called empress; both males and females held both titles, i. e., tsar (or tsaritsa) and imperator (or imperatritsa). After the French Revolution had destroyed the kingdom of France, Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804, having been anointed by Pope Pius VII, crowned himself emperor of the French as Napoleon I. His claim to be the successor not of Louis XIV but of Charlemagne, together with his organization of the Confederation of the Rhine in Germany, was a threat to the Holy Roman Empire of the Habsburg dynasty. Seeing this, Francis II, to retain an imperial title, took that of “hereditary emperor of Austria ” before he dissolved the old empire in 1806. His successors retained it until 1918. Napoleon III was emperor of the French from 1852 until his deposition in 1870–71 (the French Second Empire). Between 1871 and 1918 the kings of Prussia —William I, Frederick III, and William II— were German emperors, or kaisers. Victoria of Great Britain took the title empress of India in 1876, but her great-grandson George VI renounced the imperial title when India became independent. In the Western Hemisphere Jean-Jacques Dessalines was emperor of Haiti from 1804 to 1806; princes of the house of Bragança were emperors of Brazil from 1822 to 1889; Agustín de Iturbide and the Austrian archduke Maximilian were emperors of Mexico from 1822 to 1823 and from 1864 to 1867, respectively. The title emperor also is generally and loosely used as the English designation for the sovereigns of Ethiopia and of Japan, for the Mogul rulers of India, for the former sovereigns of China, for the Inca rulers of Peru, and for the Aztec rulers of Mexico. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Among the institutions most important in softening the edges of regional differences was the cult of the emperors. In one sense, it originated in the 4th century bc, when Alexander the Great first received veneration by titles and symbols and forms of address as… history of Europe: The empire …house was also Holy Roman emperor. He directly ruled the family lands, comprising different parts of Austria stretching from Alpine valleys to the Danubian plain, which were mainly Roman Catholic and German; Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, which were mainly Slavic in race and language; a fraction of Hungary after the… history of Europe: Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world In the 3rd century the emperor, who was first called princeps (“first citizen”) and then dominus (“lord”), became divus (“divine”). The powerful religious connotations of the imperial office were adopted even by usurpers of the imperial throne, backed by their armies, who then ruled autocratically at the head of a….

Music that defends itself without any theatrical wizardry! Though I drifted away from black metal to electronic genres, but never drifted away from Emperor. Emperor is among my favorite bands, I respected them and I always will. Great to see them playing live! m. I just realized something. Emperor and Immortal have the same pattern of albums released. They released a demo, a debut self-titled EP, and a debut album in a three year span. Heres an example: Immortal Suffocate (1990) Immortal EP (1991) Diabolical Fullmoon Mysticism (1992) Emperor Wrath Of The Tyrant (1992) Emperor EP (1993) In The Nightside Eclipse (1994) I think this is a really cool coincidence. @ 51:23. like music made from a bunch of bench top grinders :D. Emperortigerstar. Legend. Killer song! Love Emperor always.


GOOD EP! Hail Emperor lml. Probably one of the best frontmen of all times. Part of a series on European imperial, royal, noble, gentry and chivalric ranks in Western culture Emperor / Empress / King-Emperor / Queen-Empress / Kaiser / Tsar High king / High queen / Great king / Great queen King / Queen Archduke / Archduchess / Tsesarevich Grand prince / Grand princess Grand duke / Grand duchess Prince-elector / Prince / Princess / Crown prince / Crown princess / Foreign prince / Prince du sang / Infante / Infanta / Dauphin / Dauphine / Królewicz / Królewna / Jarl Duke / Duchess / Herzog / Knyaz / Princely count Sovereign prince / Sovereign princess / Fürst / Fürstin / Boyar Marquess / Marquis / Marchioness  / Margrave  / Landgrave / Marcher Lord / Count palatine Count / Countess  / Earl / Graf / Châtelain / Castellan / Burgrave Viscount / Viscountess  / Vidame Baron / Baroness / Freiherr / Advocatus / Lord of Parliament / Thane / Lenderman Baronet / Baronetess / Scottish Feudal Baron / Scottish Feudal Baroness / Ritter / Imperial Knight Eques / Knight / Chevalier / Ridder / Lady / Dame / Edelfrei / Seigneur / Lord Gentleman / Gentry / Esquire / Laird / Edler / Jonkheer / Junker / Younger / Maid Ministerialis v t e An emperor (from Latin: imperator, via Old French: empereor) [1] is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife ( empress consort), mother ( empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right ( empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". [2] Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and typically rules over more than one nation. Therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, [3] or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be completely free of such restraints. However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire even during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used exclusively by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i. e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states (outside the Habsburg Monarchy, i. Austria, Bohemia and various territories outside the empire) had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year. The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia also used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their status was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not officially used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar even after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has even extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era. However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but currently precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, queens, emperors, empresses, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Roman tradition [ edit] In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country. The first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because that was the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was already usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors also varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known (for empires not too strictly under salic law). Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as often occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors; the Roman imperial tradition made no exception to other monarchical traditions in this respect. Probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Rome's third century rule. Roman Empire and Byzantine emperors [ edit] Classical Antiquity [ edit] When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch. Ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and it was critical to the political order to maintain the forms and pretenses of republican rule. Julius Caesar had been Dictator, an acknowledged and traditional office in Republican Rome. Caesar was not the first to hold it, but following his assassination the term was abhorred in Rome [ citation needed]. Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus, considered the first Roman emperor, established his hegemony by collecting on himself offices, titles, and honours of Republican Rome that had traditionally been distributed to different people, concentrating what had been distributed power in one man. One of these offices was princeps senatus, ("first man of the Senate") and became changed into Augustus' chief honorific, princeps civitatis ("first citizen") from which the modern English word and title prince is descended. The first period of the Roman Empire, from 27 BC – AD 284, is called the principate for this reason. However, it was the informal descriptive of Imperator ("commander") that became the title increasingly favored by his successors. Previously bestowed on high officials and military commanders who had imperium, Augustus reserved it exclusively to himself as the ultimate holder of all imperium. ( Imperium is Latin for the authority to command, one of a various types of authority delineated in Roman political thought. ) Beginning with Augustus, Imperator appeared in the title of all Roman monarchs through the extinction of the Empire in 1453. After the reign of Augustus' immediate successor Tiberius, being proclaimed imperator was transformed into the act of accession to the head of state. Other honorifics used by the Roman Emperors have also come to be synonyms for Emperor: Caesar (as, for example, in Suetonius ' Twelve Caesars). This tradition continued in many languages: in German it became " Kaiser "; in certain Slavic languages it became " Tsar "; in Hungarian it became " Császár ", and several more variants. The name derived from Julius Caesar 's cognomen "Caesar": this cognomen was adopted by all Roman emperors, exclusively by the ruling monarch after the Julio-Claudian dynasty had died out. In this tradition Julius Caesar is sometimes described as the first Caesar/emperor (following Suetonius). This is one of the most enduring titles, Caesar and its transliterations appeared in every year from the time of Caesar Augustus to Tsar Symeon II of Bulgaria 's removal from the throne in 1946. Augustus was the honorific first bestowed on Emperor Augustus: after him all Roman emperors added it to their name. Although it had a high symbolical value, something like "elevated" or "sublime", it was generally not used to indicate the office of Emperor itself. Exceptions include the title of the Augustan History, a semi-historical collection of Emperors' biographies of the 2nd and 3rd century. Augustus had (by his last will) granted the feminine form of this honorific ( Augusta) to his wife. Since there was no "title" of Empress(-consort) whatsoever, women of the reigning dynasty sought to be granted this honorific, as the highest attainable goal. Few were however granted the title, and certainly not as a rule all wives of reigning Emperors. Imperator (as, for example, in Pliny the Elder 's Naturalis Historia). In the Roman Republic Imperator meant "(military) commander". In the late Republic, as in the early years of the new monarchy, Imperator was a title granted to Roman generals by their troops and the Roman Senate after a great victory, roughly comparable to field marshal (head or commander of the entire army). For example, in AD 15 Germanicus was proclaimed Imperator during the reign of his adoptive father Tiberius. Soon thereafter "Imperator" became however a title reserved exclusively for the ruling monarch. This led to "Emperor" in English and, among other examples, "Empereur" in French and "Mbreti" in Albanian. The Latin feminine form Imperatrix only developed after "Imperator" had taken on the connotation of "Emperor". Autokrator (Αὐτοκράτωρ) or Basileus (βασιλεύς): although the Greeks used equivalents of "Caesar" (Καῖσαρ, Kaisar) and "Augustus" (in two forms: transliterated as Αὔγουστος, Augoustos or translated as Σεβαστός, Sebastos) these were rather used as part of the name of the Emperor than as an indication of the office. Instead of developing a new name for the new type of monarchy, they used αὐτοκράτωρ ( autokratōr, only partly overlapping with the modern understanding of " autocrat ") or βασιλεύς ( basileus, until then the usual name for " sovereign "). Autokratōr was essentially used as a translation of the Latin Imperator in Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire, but also here there is only partial overlap between the meaning of the original Greek and Latin concepts. For the Greeks Autokratōr was not a military title, and was closer to the Latin dictator concept ("the one with unlimited power"), before it came to mean Emperor. Basileus appears not to have been used exclusively in the meaning of "emperor" (and specifically, the Roman/Byzantine emperor) before the 7th century, although it was a standard informal designation of the Emperor in the Greek-speaking East. After the turbulent Year of the four emperors in 69, the Flavian Dynasty reigned for three decades. The succeeding Nervan-Antonian Dynasty, ruling for most of the 2nd century, stabilised the Empire. This epoch became known as the era of the Five Good Emperors, and was followed by the short-lived Severan Dynasty. During the Crisis of the 3rd century, Barracks Emperors succeeded one another at short intervals. Three short lived secessionist attempts had their own emperors: the Gallic Empire, the Britannic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire though the latter used rex more regularly. The Principate (27 BC – 284 AD) period was succeeded by what is known as the Dominate (284 AD – 527 AD), during which Emperor Diocletian tried to put the Empire on a more formal footing. Diocletian sought to address the challenges of the Empire's now vast geography and the instability caused by the informality of succession by the creation of co-emperors and junior emperors. At one point, there were as many as five sharers of the imperium (see: Tetrarchy). In 325 AD Constantine I defeated his rivals and restored single emperor rule, but following his death the empire was divided among his sons. For a time the concept was of one empire ruled by multiple emperors with varying territory under their control, however following the death of Theodosius I the rule was divided between his two sons and increasingly became separate entities. The areas administered from Rome are referred to by historians the Western Roman Empire and those under the immediate authority of Constantinople called the Eastern Roman Empire or (after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD) the Later Roman or Byzantine Empire. The subdivisions and co-emperor system were formally abolished by Emperor Zeno in 480 AD following the death of Julius Nepos last Western Emperor and the ascension of Odoacer as the de facto King of Italy in 476 AD. Byzantine period [ edit] Before the 4th Crusade [ edit] Under Justinian I, reigning in the 6th century, parts of Italy were for a few decades (re)conquered from the Ostrogoths: thus, this famous mosaic, featuring the Byzantine emperor in the center, can be admired at Ravenna. Historians generally refer to the continuing Roman Empire in the east as the Byzantine Empire after Byzantium, the original name of the town that Constantine I would elevate to the Imperial capital as New Rome in AD 330. (The city is more commonly called Constantinople and is today named Istanbul). Although the empire was again subdivided and a co-emperor sent to Italy at the end of the fourth century, the office became unitary again only 95 years later at the request of the Roman Senate and following the death of Julius Nepos, last Western Emperor. This change was a recognition of the reality that little remained of Imperial authority in the areas that had been the Western Empire, with even Rome and Italy itself now ruled by the essentially autonomous Odoacer. These Later Roman "Byzantine" Emperors completed the transition from the idea of the Emperor as a semi-republican official to the Emperor as an absolute monarch. Of particular note was the translation of the Latin Imperator into the Greek Basileus, after Emperor Heraclius changed the official language of the empire from Latin to Greek in AD 620. Basileus, a title which had long been used for Alexander the Great was already in common usage as the Greek word for the Roman emperor, but its definition and sense was "King" in Greek, essentially equivalent with the Latin Rex. Byzantine period emperors also used the Greek word "autokrator", meaning "one who rules himself", or "monarch", which was traditionally used by Greek writers to translate the Latin dictator. Essentially, the Greek language did not incorporate the nuances of the Ancient Roman concepts that distinguished imperium from other forms of political power. In general usage, the Byzantine imperial title evolved from simply "emperor" ( basileus), to "emperor of the Romans" ( basileus tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 9th century, to "emperor and autocrat of the Romans" ( basileus kai autokratōr tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 10th. [4] In fact, none of these (and other) additional epithets and titles had ever been completely discarded. One important distinction between the post Constantine I (reigned AD 306–337) emperors and their pagan predecessors was cesaropapism, the assertion that the Emperor (or other head of state) is also the head of the Church. Although this principle was held by all emperors after Constantine, it met with increasing resistance and ultimately rejection by bishops in the west after the effective end of Imperial power there. This concept became a key element of the meaning of "emperor" in the Byzantine and Orthodox east, but went out of favor in the west with the rise of Roman Catholicism. The Byzantine Empire also produced three women who effectively governed the state: the Empress Irene and the Empresses Zoe and Theodora. Latin emperors [ edit] In 1204 Constantinople fell to the Venetians and the Franks in the Fourth Crusade. Following the tragedy of the horrific sacking of the city, the conquerors declared a new "Empire of Romania", known to historians as the Latin Empire of Constantinople, installing Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, as Emperor. However, Byzantine resistance to the new empire meant that it was in constant struggle to establish itself. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos succeeded in recapturing Constantinople in 1261. The Principality of Achaea, a vassal state the empire had created in Morea (Greece) intermittently continued to recognize the authority of the crusader emperors for another half century. Pretenders to the title continued among the European nobility until circa 1383. After the 4th Crusade [ edit] With Constantinople occupied, claimants to the imperial succession styled themselves as emperor in the chief centers of resistance: The Laskarid dynasty in the Empire of Nicaea, the Komnenid dynasty in the Empire of Trebizond and the Doukid dynasty in the Despotate of Epirus. In 1248, Epirus recognized the Nicaean Emperors, who subsequently recaptured Constantinople in 1261. The Trapezuntine emperor formally submitted in Constantinople in 1281, [5] but frequently flouted convention by styling themselves emperor back in Trebizond thereafter. Ottoman Empire [ edit] Agostino Veneziano 's engraving of Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent wearing his Venetian Helmet. [note 1] Note the four tiers on the helmet, symbolizing his imperial power, and excelling the three-tiered papal tiara. [6] This tiara was made for 115, 000 ducats and offered to Suleiman by the French ambassador Antonio Rincon in 1532. [7] This was a most atypical piece of headgear for a Turkish sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather. [8] Ottoman rulers held several titles denoting their Imperial status. These included: [ citation needed] Sultan, Khan, Sovereign of the Imperial House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianopole and Bursa as well as many other cities and countries. [9] After the Ottoman capture of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultans began to style themselves Kaysar-i Rum (Emperor of the Romans) as they asserted themselves to be the heirs to the Roman Empire by right of conquest. The title was of such importance to them that it led them to eliminate the various Byzantine successor states — and therefore rival claimants — over the next eight years. Though the term "emperor" was rarely used by Westerners of the Ottoman sultan, it was generally accepted by Westerners that he had imperial status. Holy Roman Empire [ edit] The Emperor of the Romans' title was a reflection of the translatio imperii ( transfer of rule) principle that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Roman Empire in the east, hence the problem of two emperors. From the time of Otto the Great onward, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia became the Holy Roman Empire. The prince-electors elected one of their peers as King of the Romans and King of Italy before being crowned by the Pope. The Emperor could also pursue the election of his heir (usually a son) as King, who would then succeed him after his death. This junior King then bore the title of Roman King (King of the Romans). Although technically already ruling, after the election he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The last emperor to be crowned by the pope was Charles V; all emperors after him were technically emperors-elect, but were universally referred to as Emperor. Austrian Empire [ edit] The first Austrian Emperor was the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. In the face of aggressions by Napoleon, Francis feared for the future of the Holy Roman Empire. He wished to maintain his and his family's Imperial status in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should be dissolved, as it indeed was in 1806 when an Austrian-led army suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. After which, the victorious Napoleon proceeded to dismantle the old Reich by severing a good portion from the empire and turning it into a separate Confederation of the Rhine. With the size of his imperial realm significantly reduced, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor became Francis I, Emperor of Austria. The new imperial title may have sounded less prestigious than the old one, but Francis' dynasty continued to rule from Austria and a Habsburg monarch was still an emperor ( Kaiser), and not just merely a king ( König), in name. The title lasted just a little over one century until 1918, but it was never clear what territory constituted the " Empire of Austria ". When Francis took the title in 1804, the Habsburg lands as a whole were dubbed the Kaisertum Österreich. Kaisertum might literally be translated as "emperordom" (on analogy with "kingdom") or "emperor-ship"; the term denotes specifically "the territory ruled by an emperor", and is thus somewhat more general than Reich, which in 1804 carried connotations of universal rule. Austria proper (as opposed to the complex of Habsburg lands as a whole) had been an Archduchy since the 15th century, and most of the other territories of the Empire had their own institutions and territorial history, although there were some attempts at centralization, especially during the reign of Marie Therese and her son Joseph II and then finalized in the early 19th century. When Hungary was given self-government in 1867, the non-Hungarian portions were called the Empire of Austria and were officially known as the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council ( Reichsrat)". The title of Emperor of Austria and the associated Empire were both abolished at the end of the First World War in 1918, when German Austria became a republic and the other kingdoms and lands represented in the Imperial Council established their independence or adhesion to other states. Emperors of Europe [ edit] Byzantium 's close cultural and political interaction with its Balkan neighbors Bulgaria and Serbia, and with Russia (Kievan Rus', then Muscovy) led to the adoption of Byzantine imperial traditions in all of these countries. Bulgaria [ edit] In 913, Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned Emperor ( Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople and Imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside the Byzantine capital. In its final simplified form, the title read "Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Romans" ( Tsar i samodarzhets na vsichki balgari i gartsi in the modern vernacular). The Roman component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicated both rulership over Greek speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans, however this component was never recognised by the Byzantine court. Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial title was revoked by the succeeding Byzantine government. The decade 914–924 was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. The Bulgarian monarch, who had further irritated his Byzantine counterpart by claiming the title "Emperor of the Romans" ( basileus tōn Rōmaiōn), was eventually recognized, as "Emperor of the Bulgarians" ( basileus tōn Boulgarōn) by the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lakapenos in 924. Byzantine recognition of the imperial dignity of the Bulgarian monarch and the patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian patriarch was again confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a Bulgarian-Byzantine dynastic marriage in 927. In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the pope. The Bulgarian imperial title "tsar" was adopted by all Bulgarian monarchs up to the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule. 14th-century Bulgarian literary compositions clearly denote the Bulgarian capital ( Tarnovo) as a successor of Rome and Constantinople, in effect, the "Third Rome". After Bulgaria obtained full independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908, its monarch, who was previously styled Knyaz, [prince], took the traditional title of Tsar [king] and was recognized internationally as such. [ by whom? ] France [ edit] The kings of the Ancien Régime and the July Monarchy used the title Empereur de France in diplomatic correspondence and treaties with the Ottoman emperor from at least 1673 onwards. The Ottomans insisted on this elevated style while refusing to recognize the Holy Roman Emperors or the Russian tsars because of their rival claims of the Roman crown. In short, it was an indirect insult by the Ottomans to the HRE and the Russians. The French kings also used it for Morocco (1682) and Persia (1715). First French Empire [ edit] Napoleon Bonaparte, who was already First Consul of the French Republic ( Premier Consul de la République française) for life, declared himself Emperor of the French ( Empereur des Français) on 18 May 1804, thus creating the French Empire ( Empire Français). Napoleon relinquished the title of Emperor of the French on 6 April and again on 11 April 1814. Napoleon's infant son, Napoleon II, was recognized by the Council of Peers, as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication, and therefore reigned (as opposed to ruled) as Emperor for fifteen days, 22 June to 7 July 1815. Elba [ edit] Since 3 May 1814, the Sovereign Principality of Elba was created a miniature non-hereditary Monarchy under the exiled French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon I was allowed, by the treaty of Fontainebleau (27 April), to enjoy, for life, the imperial title. The islands were not restyled an empire. On 26 February 1815, Napoleon abandoned Elba for France, reviving the French Empire for a Hundred Days; the Allies declared an end to Napoleon's sovereignty over Elba on 25 March 1815, and on 31 March 1815 Elba was ceded to the restored Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Congress of Vienna. After his final defeat, Napoleon was treated as a general by the British authorities during his second exile to Atlantic Isle of St. Helena. His title was a matter of dispute with the governor of St Helena, who insisted on addressing him as "General Bonaparte", despite the "historical reality that he had been an emperor" and therefore retained the title. [10] [11] [12] Second French Empire [ edit] Napoleon I's nephew, Napoleon III, resurrected the title of emperor on 2 December 1852, after establishing the Second French Empire in a presidential coup, subsequently approved by a plebiscite. His reign was marked by large scale public works, the development of social policy, and the extension of France's influence throughout the world. During his reign, he also set about creating the Second Mexican Empire (headed by his choice of Maximilian I of Mexico, a member of the House of Habsburg), to regain France's hold in the Americas and to achieve greatness for the 'Latin' race. [13] Napoleon III was deposed on 4 September 1870, after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. The Third Republic followed and after the death of his son Napoleon (IV), in 1879 during the Zulu War, the Bonapartist movement split, and the Third Republic was to last until 1940. Iberian Peninsula [ edit] Spain [ edit] The origin of the title Imperator totius Hispaniae ( Latin for Emperor of All Spain [note 2]) is murky. It was associated with the Leonese monarchy perhaps as far back as Alfonso the Great ( r. 866–910). The last two kings of its Astur-Leonese dynasty were called emperors in a contemporary source. King Sancho III of Navarre conquered Leon in 1034 and began using it. His son, Ferdinand I of Castile also took the title in 1039. Ferdinand's son, Alfonso VI of León and Castile took the title in 1077. It then passed to his son-in-law, Alfonso I of Aragon in 1109. His stepson and Alfonso VI's grandson, Alfonso VII was the only one who actually had an imperial coronation in 1135. The title was not exactly hereditary but self-proclaimed by those who had, wholly or partially, united the Christian northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, often at the expense of killing rival siblings. The popes and Holy Roman emperors protested at the usage of the imperial title as a usurpation of leadership in western Christendom. After Alfonso VII's death in 1157, the title was abandoned, and the kings who used it are not commonly mentioned as having been "emperors", in Spanish or other historiography. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the legitimate heir to the throne, Andreas Palaiologos, willed away his claim to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1503. Portugal [ edit] After the independence and proclamation of the Empire of Brazil from the Kingdom of Portugal by Prince Pedro, who became Emperor, in 1822, his father, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil and the treatment of His Imperial and Royal Majesty under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific while his son, Pedro I, remained the sole monarch of the Brazilian Empire. Great Britain [ edit] In the late 3rd century, by the end of the epoch of the barracks emperors in Rome, there were two Britannic Emperors, reigning for about a decade. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the Imperator Cunedda forged the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales, but all his successors were titled kings and princes. England [ edit] There was no consistent title for the king of England before 1066, and monarchs chose to style themselves as they pleased. Imperial titles were used inconsistently, beginning with Athelstan in 930 and ended with the Norman conquest of England. Empress Matilda (1102–1167) is the only English monarch commonly referred to as "emperor" or "empress", but she acquired her title through her marriage to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. During the rule of Henry VIII the Statute in Restraint of Appeals declared that 'this realm of England is an erned by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same'. This was in the context of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon and the English Reformation, to emphasize that England had never accepted the quasi-imperial claims of the papacy. Hence England and, by extension its modern successor state, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is according to English law an Empire ruled by a King endowed with the imperial dignity. However, this has not led to the creation of the title of Emperor in England, nor in Great Britain, nor in the United Kingdom. United Kingdom [ edit] In 1801, George III rejected the title of Emperor when offered. The only period when British monarchs held the title of Emperor in a dynastic succession started when the title Empress of India was created for Queen Victoria. The government led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, conferred the additional title upon her by an Act of Parliament, reputedly to assuage the monarch's irritation at being, as a mere Queen, notionally inferior to her own daughter ( Princess Victoria, who was the wife of the reigning German Emperor); the Indian Imperial designation was also formally justified as the expression of Britain succeeding the former Mughal Emperor as suzerain over hundreds of princely states. The Indian Independence Act 1947 provided for the abolition of the use of the title " Emperor of India " by the British monarch, but this was not executed by King George VI until a royal proclamation on 22 June 1948. Despite this, George VI continued as king of India until 1950 and as king of Pakistan until his death in 1952. The last Empress of India was George VI's wife, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. German Empire [ edit] Under the guise of idealism giving way to realism, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848 to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck 's authoritarian Realpolitik. Bismarck wanted to unify the rival German states to achieve his aim of a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to convince German people to do this: the Second war of Schleswig against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War against Austria in 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War against the Second French Empire in 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris in 1871, the North German Confederation, supported by its allies from southern Germany, formed the German Empire with the proclamation of the Prussian king Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, to the humiliation of the French, who ceased to resist only days later. After his death he was succeeded by his son Frederick III who was only emperor for 99 days. In the same year his son Wilhelm II became the third emperor within a year. He was the last German emperor. After the empire's defeat in World War I the empire, called in German Reich, had a president as head of state instead of an emperor. The use of the word Reich was abandoned after the Second World War. Russia [ edit] In 1472, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Sophia Palaiologina, married Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow, who began championing the idea of Russia being the successor to the Byzantine Empire. This idea was represented more emphatically in the composition the monk Filofej addressed to their son Vasili III. After ending Muscovy's dependence on its Mongol overlords in 1480, Ivan III began the usage of the titles Tsar and Autocrat ( samoderzhets). His insistence on recognition as such by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire since 1489 resulted in the granting of this recognition in 1514 by Emperor Maximilian I to Vasili III. His son Ivan IV emphatically crowned himself Tsar of Russia on 16 January 1547. The word "Tsar" derives from Latin Caesar, but this title was used in Russia as equivalent to "King"; the error occurred when medieval Russian clerics referred to the biblical Jewish kings with the same title that was used to designate Roman and Byzantine rulers — "Caesar". On 31 October 1721, Peter I was proclaimed Emperor by the Senate. The title used was Latin " Imperator ", which is a westernizing form equivalent to the traditional Slavic title " Tsar ". He based his claim partially upon a letter discovered in 1717 written in 1514 from Maximilian I to Vasili III, in which the Holy Roman Emperor used the term in referring to Vasili. A formal address to the ruling Russian monarch adopted thereafter was 'Your Imperial Majesty'. The crown prince was addressed as 'Your Imperial Highness'. The title has not been used in Russia since the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on 15 March 1917. Imperial Russia produced four reigning Empresses, all in the eighteenth century. Serbia [ edit] In 1345, the Serbian King Stefan Uroš IV Dušan proclaimed himself Emperor ( Tsar) and was crowned as such at Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly created Serbian Patriarch, and by the Patriarch of Bulgaria and the autocephalous Archbishop of Ohrid. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. In its final simplified form, the Serbian imperial title read "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" ( цар Срба и Грка in modern Serbian). It was only employed by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and his son Stefan Uroš V in Serbia (until his death in 1371), after which it became extinct. A half-brother of Dušan, Simeon Uroš, and then his son Jovan Uroš, claimed the same title, until the latter's abdication in 1373, while ruling as dynasts in Thessaly. The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans. Emperors in the Americas [ edit] Pre-Columbian traditions [ edit] The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas. Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman (Byzantine) emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish. Aztec Empire [ edit] The only pre-Columbian North American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Hueyi Tlatoani of the Aztec Empire (1375–1521). It was an elected monarchy chosen by the elite. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés slew Emperor Cuauhtémoc and installed puppet rulers who became vassals for Spain. Inca Empire [ edit] The only pre-Columbian South American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire (1438–1533). Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, conquered the Inca for Spain, killed Emperor Atahualpa, and installed puppets as well. Atahualpa may actually be considered a usurper as he had achieved power by killing his half-brother and he did not perform the required coronation with the imperial crown mascaipacha by the Huillaq Uma (high priest). Post-Columbian Americas [ edit] Brazil [ edit] When Napoleon I ordered the invasion of Portugal in 1807 because it refused to join the Continental System, the Portuguese Braganzas moved their capital to Rio de Janeiro to avoid the fate of the Spanish Bourbons (Napoleon I arrested them and made his brother Joseph king). When the French general Jean-Andoche Junot arrived in Lisbon, the Portuguese fleet had already left with all the local elite. In 1808, under a British naval escort, the fleet arrived in Brazil. Later, in 1815, the Portuguese Prince Regent (since 1816 King João VI) proclaimed the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, as a union of three kingdoms, lifting Brazil from its colonial status. After the fall of Napoleon I and the Liberal revolution in Portugal, the Portuguese royal family returned to Europe (1821). Prince Pedro of Braganza (King João's older son) stayed in South America acting as regent of the local kingdom, but, two years later in 1822, he proclaimed himself Pedro I, first Emperor of Brazil. He did, however, recognize his father, João VI, as Titular Emperor of Brazil —a purely honorific title—until João VI's death in 1826. The empire came to an end in 1889, with the overthrow of Emperor Pedro II (Pedro I's son and successor), when the Brazilian republic was proclaimed. Haiti [ edit] Haiti was declared an empire by its ruler, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who made himself Jacques I, on 20 May 1805. He was assassinated the next year. Haiti again became an empire from 1849 to 1859 under Faustin Soulouque. Mexico [ edit] In Mexico, the First Mexican Empire was the first of two empires created. After the declaration of independence on September 15, 1821, it was the intention of the Mexican parliament to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would also be Emperor of Mexico, but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Should the king refuse the position, the law provided for a member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne. Ferdinand VII, however, did not recognize the independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico. By request of Parliament, the president of the regency Agustín de Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico on 12 July 1822 as Agustín I. Agustín de Iturbide was the general who helped secure Mexican independence from Spanish rule, but was overthrown by the Plan of Casa Mata. In 1863, the invading French, under Napoleon III (see above), in alliance with Mexican conservatives and nobility, helped create the Second Mexican Empire, and invited Archduke Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, younger brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I, to become emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The childless Maximilian and his consort Empress Carlota of Mexico, daughter of Leopold I of Belgium, adopted Agustín's grandsons Agustin and Salvador as his heirs to bolster his claim to the throne of Mexico. Maximilian and Carlota made Chapultepec Castle their home, which has been the only palace in North America to house sovereigns. After the withdrawal of French protection in 1867, Maximilian was captured and executed by the liberal forces of Benito Juárez. This empire led to French influence in the Mexican culture and also immigration from France, Belgium, and Switzerland to Mexico. Persia (Iran) [ edit] In Persia, from the time of Darius the Great, Persian rulers used the title " King of Kings " ( Shahanshah in Persian) since they had dominion over peoples from the borders of India to the borders of Greece and Egypt. Alexander probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia [ citation needed], bringing the phrase basileus ton basileon to Greek. It is also known that Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the Parthians. Georgian title "mephet'mephe" has the same meaning. The last shahanshah ( Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was ousted in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. Iranian rulers were typically regarded in the West as emperors. Indian subcontinent [ edit] "Samraat" redirects here. For the 1982 film, see Samraat (film). The Sanskrit word for emperor is Samrāj or Samraat or Chakravartin. This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Rig-Veda, possibly the oldest compiled book among the Indo-Europeans. Chakravarti refers to the king of kings. A Chakravarti is not only a sovereign ruler but also has feudatories. Typically, in the later Vedic age, a Hindu high king ( Maharaja) was only called Samraaṭ after performing the Vedic Rajasuya sacrifice, enabling him by religious tradition to claim superiority over the other kings and princes. Another word for emperor is sārvabhaumā. The title of Samraaṭ has been used by many rulers of the Indian subcontinent as claimed by the Hindu mythologies. In proper history, most historians call Chandragupta Maurya the first samraaṭ (emperor) of the Indian subcontinent, because of the huge empire he ruled. The most famous emperor was his grandson Ashoka the Great. Other dynasties that are considered imperial by historians are the Kushanas, Guptas, Vijayanagara, Kakatiya, Hoysala and the Cholas. Rudhramadevi (1259–1289) was one of the most prominent rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty on the Deccan Plateau, being one of the few ruling queens (empress) in Indian history. After India was invaded by the Mongol Khans and Turkic Muslims, the rulers of their major states on the subcontinent were titled Sultān or Badshah or Shahanshah. In this manner, the only empress-regnant ever to have actually sat on the throne of Delhi was Razia Sultan. The Mughal Emperors were the only Indian rulers for whom the term was consistently used by Western contemporaries. The emperors of the Maratha Empire were called Chhatrapati. From 1877 to 1947 the monarch of the United Kingdom adopted the additional title of Emperor/Empress of India ( Kaisar-i-Hind). Africa [ edit] Ethiopia [ edit] From 1270 the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia used the title Nəgusä Nägäst, literally "King of Kings". The use of the king of kings style began a millennium earlier in this region, however, with the title being used by the Kings of Aksum, beginning with Sembrouthes in the 3rd century. Another title used by this dynasty was Itegue Zetopia. Itegue translates as Empress, and was used by the only reigning Empress, Zauditu, along with the official title Negiste Negest ("Queen of Kings"). In 1936, the Italian king Victor Emmanuel III claimed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia after Ethiopia was occupied by Italy during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. After the defeat of the Italians by the British and the Ethiopians in 1941, Haile Selassie was restored to the throne but Victor Emmanuel did not relinquish his claim to the title until 1943. [14] Central African Empire [ edit] In 1976, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa of the Central African Republic, proclaimed the country to be an autocratic Central African Empire, and made himself Emperor as Bokassa I. The expenses of his coronation ceremony actually bankrupted the country. He was overthrown three years later and the republic was restored. [15] East Asian tradition (Sinosphere) [ edit] The rulers of China and (once Westerners became aware of the role) Japan were always accepted in the West as emperors, and referred to as such. The claims of other East Asian monarchies to the title may have been accepted for diplomatic purposes, but it was not necessarily used in more general contexts. China [ edit] The East Asian tradition is different from the Roman tradition, having arisen separately. What links them together is the use of the Chinese logographs 皇 ( huáng) and 帝 ( dì) which together or individually are imperial. Because of the cultural influence of China, China's neighbors adopted these titles or had their native titles conform in hanzi. Anyone who spoke to the emperor was to address the emperor as bìxià (陛下, lit. the "Bottom of the Steps"), corresponding to " Imperial Majesty "; shèngshàng (聖上, lit. Holy Highness); or wànsuì (萬歲, lit. "You, of Ten Thousand Years"). In 221 BC, Ying Zheng, who was king of Qin at the time, proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi (始皇帝), which translates as "first emperor". Huangdi is composed of huang ("august one", 皇) and di ("sage-king", 帝), and referred to legendary/mythological sage-emperors living several millennia earlier, of which three were huang and five were di. Thus Zheng became Qin Shi Huang, abolishing the system where the huang / di titles were reserved to dead and/or mythological rulers. Since then, the title "king" became a lower ranked title, and later divided into two grades. Although not as popular, the title 王 wang (king or prince) was still used by many monarchs and dynasties in China up to the Taipings in the 19th century. 王 is pronounced vương in Vietnamese, ō in Japanese, and wang in Korean. The imperial title continued in China until the Qing Dynasty was overthrown in 1912. The title was briefly revived from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916 by President Yuan Shikai and again in early July 1917 when General Zhang Xun attempted to restore last Qing emperor Puyi to the throne. Puyi retained the title and attributes of a foreign emperor, as a personal status, until 1924. After the Japanese occupied Manchuria in 1931, they proclaimed it to be the Empire of Manchukuo, and Puyi became emperor of Manchukuo. This empire ceased to exist when it was occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945. [16] In general, an emperor would have one empress ( Huanghou, 皇后) at one time, although posthumous entitlement to empress for a concubine was not uncommon. The earliest known usage of huanghou was in the Han Dynasty. The emperor would generally select the empress from his concubines. In subsequent dynasties, when the distinction between wife and concubine became more accentuated, the crown prince would have chosen an empress-designate before his reign. Imperial China produced only one reigning empress, Wu Zetian, and she used the same Chinese title as an emperor ( Huangdi, 皇帝). Wu Zetian then reigned for about 15 years (690–705 AD). Japan [ edit] Emperor Hirohito (裕仁), or the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), the last Japanese Emperor having ruled with prerogative powers, combined with assumption of divinity (photographed 1926). The earliest Emperor recorded in Kojiki and Nihon Shoki is Emperor Jimmu, who is said to be a descendant of Amaterasu 's grandson Ninigi who descended from Heaven ( Tenson kōrin). If one believes what is written in Nihon Shoki, the Emperors have an unbroken direct male lineage that goes back more than 2, 600 years. In ancient Japan, the earliest titles for the sovereign were either ヤマト大王/大君 ( yamato ōkimi, Grand King of Yamato), 倭王/倭国王 ( waō / wakokuō, King of Wa, used externally), or 治天下大王 ( amenoshita shiroshimesu ōkimi, Grand King who rules all under heaven, used internally). As early as the 7th century, the word 天皇 (which can be read either as sumera no mikoto, divine order, or as tennō, Heavenly Emperor, the latter being derived from a Tang Chinese term referring to the Pole star around which all other stars revolve) began to be used. The earliest use of this term is found on a wooden slat, or mokkan, unearthed in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998. The slat dated back to the reign of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. The reading 'Tennō' has become the standard title for the Japanese sovereign up to the present age. The term 帝 ( mikado, Emperor) is also found in literary sources. Japanese monarchs were given their official title by the Chinese emperor. The new Japanese monarch after coming into power would send a representative to China and receive the anointment. They would receive their official title on several golden plates of several meters tall. Since the Japanese monarchs changed their title to 天皇 (Heavenly Emperor) in 607, the Chinese emperor refused to anoint the Japanese king, thus, ending relations with Japan for the next few hundred years. [17] In the Japanese language, the word tennō is restricted to Japan's own monarch; kōtei (皇帝) is used for foreign emperors. Historically, retired emperors often kept power over a child-emperor as de facto regent. For a long time, a shōgun (formally the imperial military dictator, but made hereditary) or an imperial regent wielded actual political power. In fact, through much of Japanese history, the emperor has been little more than a figurehead. The Meiji Restoration restored practical abilities and the political system under Emperor Meiji. [18] The last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1868. After World War II, all claims of divinity were dropped (see Ningen-sengen). The Diet acquired all prerogative powers of the Crown, reverting the latter to a ceremonial role. [19] By the end of the 20th century, Japan was the only country with an emperor on the throne. As of the early 21st century, Japan's succession law prohibits a female from ascending the throne. With the birth of a daughter as the first child of the then-Crown Prince Naruhito, Japan considered abandoning that rule. However, shortly after the announcement that Princess Kiko was pregnant with her third child, the proposal to alter the Imperial Household Law was suspended by then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. On 3 January 2007, as the child turned out to be a son, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced that he would drop the proposal. [20] Emperor Naruhito is the 126th monarch according to Japan's traditional order of succession. The second and third in line of succession are Fumihito, Prince Akishino and Prince Hisahito. Historically, Japan has had eight reigning empresses who used the genderless title Tennō, rather than the female consort title kōgō (皇后) or chūgū (中宮). There is ongoing discussion of the Japanese Imperial succession controversy. Although current Japanese law prohibits female succession, all Japanese emperors claim to trace their lineage to Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess of the Shintō religion. Thus, the Emperor is thought to be the highest authority of the Shinto religion, and one of his duties is to perform Shinto rituals for the people of Japan. Korea [ edit] Some rulers of Goguryeo (37 BC–AD 668) used the title of Taewang ( 태왕; 太王), literally translated as "Greatest King". The title of Taewang was also used by some rulers of Silla (57 BC–AD 935), including Beopheung and Jinheung. The rulers of Balhae (698–926) internally called themselves Seongwang ( 성왕; 聖王; lit. "Holy King"). [21] The rulers of Goryeo (918–1392) used the titles of emperor and Son of Heaven of the East of the Ocean ( 해동천자; 海東天子). Goryeo's imperial system ended in 1270 with capitulation to the Mongol Empire. [22] In 1897, Gojong, the King of Joseon, proclaimed the founding of the Korean Empire (1897–1910), becoming the Emperor of Korea. He declared the era name of "Gwangmu" ( 광무; 光武), meaning "Bright and Martial". The Korean Empire lasted until 1910, when it was annexed by the Empire of Japan. Mongolia [ edit] The title Khagan ( khan of khans or grand khan) was held by Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire in 1206; he also formally took the Chinese title huangdi, as "Genghis Emperor" ( 成吉思皇帝; Chéngjísī Huángdì). Only the Khagans from Genghis Khan to the fall of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 are normally referred to as Emperors in English. Vietnam [ edit] Ngô Quyền, the first ruler of Đại Việt as an independent state, used the title Vương (王, King). However, after the death of Ngô Quyền, the country immersed in a civil war known as Chaos of the 12 Lords that lasted for over 20 years. In the end, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh unified the country after defeating all the warlords and became the first ruler of Đại Việt to use the title Hoàng Đế (皇帝, Emperor) in 968. Succeeding rulers in Vietnam then continued to use this Emperor title until 1806 when this title was stopped being used for a century. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh wasn't the first to claim the title of Đế (帝, Emperor). Before him, Lý Bí and Mai Thúc Loan also claimed this title. However, their rules were very short lived. The Vietnamese emperors also gave this title to their ancestors who were lords or influence figures in the previous dynasty like the Chinese emperors. This practice is one of many indications of the idea "Vietnam's equality with China" which remained intact up to the twentieth century. [23] In 1802 the newly established Nguyễn dynasty requested canonization from Chinese Jiaqing Emperor and received the title Quốc Vương (國王, King of a State) and the name of the country as An Nam (安南) instead Đại Việt (大越). To avoid unnecessary armed conflicts, the Vietnamese rulers accepted this in diplomatic relation and use the title Emperor only domestically. However, Vietnamese rulers never accepted the vassalage relationship with China and always refused to come to Chinese courts to pay homage to Chinese rulers (a sign of vassalage acceptance). China waged a number of wars against Vietnam throughout history, and after each failure, settled for the tributary relationship. The Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan waged three wars against Vietnam to force it into a vassalage relationship but after successive failures, Kublai Khan 's successor, Temür Khan, finally settled for a tributary relationship with Vietnam. Vietnam sent tributary missions to China once in three years (with some periods of disruptions) until the 19th century, Sino-French War France replaced China in control of northern Vietnam. The emperors of the last dynasty of Vietnam continued to hold this title until the French conquered Vietnam. The emperor, however, was then a puppet figure only and could easily be disposed of by the French for more pro-France figure. Japan took Vietnam from France and the Axis -occupied Vietnam was declared an empire by the Japanese in March 1945. The line of emperors came to an end with Bảo Đại, who was deposed after the war, although he later served as head of state of South Vietnam from 1949-55. Oceania [ edit] The lone holders of the imperial title in Oceania were the heads of the semi-mythical Tuʻi Tonga Empire. Fictional uses [ edit] There have been many fictional emperors in movies and books. To see a list of these emperors, see Category of fictional emperors and empresses. See also [ edit] Auctoritas Lists of emperors Notes [ edit] ^ Agostino never saw the Sultan, but probably did see and sketch the helmet in Venice. ^ Before the emergence of the modern country of Spain (beginning with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1492), the Latin word Hispania, in any of the Iberian Romance languages, either in singular or plural forms (in English: Spain or Spains), was used to refer to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, and not exclusively, as in modern usage, to the country of Spain, thus excluding Portugal. References [ edit] ^ Harper, Douglas. "emperor". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 30 August 2010. ^ Uyama, Takuei (23 October 2019). "天皇はなぜ「王(キング)」ではなく「皇帝(エンペラー)」なのか" [The Title of the Monarch of Japan: not the “King” but the “Emperor”] (in Japanese). Retrieved 23 October 2019. ^ Peng, Dr. Ying-chen. "The Forbidden City". Khan Academy. ^ George Ostrogorsky, "Avtokrator i samodržac", Glas Srpske kraljevske akadamije CLXIV, Drugi razdred 84 (1935), 95–187 ^ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, second edition (Cambridge: University Press, 1993), p. 74 ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1968. "Turquerie" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series 26 (5): 229. ^ Garnier, p. 52. ^ Levey, 65. ^ "Nobility of the World Volume VIII- Turkey". Almanch De Saxe Gotha. Retrieved 10 December 2017. ^ Napoleon, Vincent Cronin, p419, HarperCollins, 1994. ^ Napoleon, Frank McLynn, p644, Pimlico 1998 ^ Le Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, Emmanuel De Las Cases, Tome III, page101, published by Jean De Bonnot, Libraire à l'enseigne du canon, 1969 ^ Appelbaum, Nancy P. ; Macpherson, Anne S. ; Rosemblatt, Karin Alejandra (2003). Race and nation in modern Latin America. UNC Press Books. p. 88. ISBN   978-0-8078-5441-9. ^ Vadala, Alexander Attilio (1 January 2011). "Elite Distinction and Regime Change: The Ethiopian Case". Comparative Sociology. 10 (4): 636–653. doi: 10. 1163/156913311X590664. ISSN   1569-1330. ^ Lentz, Harris M (1 January 1994). Heads of states and governments: a worldwide encyclopedia of over 2, 300 leaders, 1945 through 1992. Jefferson, N. C. : McFarland. ISBN   0899509266. ^ "Manchukuo | puppet state created by Japan in China [1932]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 June 2019. ^ "Once upon a time, China anointed a 'King of Japan' - The Japan Times". The Japan Times. ^ Henry Kissinger On China. 2011 p. 79 ^ Although the Emperor of Japan is classified as constitutional monarch among political scientists, the current constitution of Japan defines him only as 'a symbol of the nation' and no subsequent legislation states his status as the head of state or equates the Crown synonymously with any government establishment. ^ Japan Imperial Succession ^ New Book of Tang, vol. 209 ^ Em, Henry (2013). The Great Enterprise: Sovereignty and Historiography in Modern Korea. Duke University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN   0822353725. Retrieved 3 November 2018. ^ Tuyet Nhung Tran, Anthony J. S. Reid (2006), Việt Nam Borderless Histories, Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 67, ISBN   978-0-299-21770-9 External links [ edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperors. Ian Mladjov's site at University of Michigan [ permanent dead link]: Monarchs (chronology and genealogy) [ permanent dead link] Monarchs (more genealogy) [ permanent dead link].

Jesus. starting with Ye Entrancemperium. wish I was there

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Disney: Yes, this is the perfect guy to sing in Frozen 2.

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